The Normans Came
By 1157 Gilla meic Liag known in the Church by his Latin name Gelesius was Archbishop and Abbot of St Patricks see in Armagh.
He had been appointed to this post in 1137 from his Abbottship of Derry Abbey when Malachy, later sainted, wanted to return to his original home and see of Connor/Down at Bangor Abbey.
Gilla believed in the continental unity of the Church and was oversear of the establihment of the Cistercian order at the New Abbey of Melifont built by O Carroll, prince of Oriel during Giolla Abbottship.
In 1157 a Synod was held at Melifont and in 1158 a synod at BegTaig and in 1160 a synod at Clones, home of the famous Irish lace manufacture.
The Church ,both celtic and continental, held great power in Ireland which since 1152 at the Synod of Kells held four dioceses approved by the Pope; Armagh,Dublin, Tuam and Cashel.
By 1166 Muirtagh O Conor had died in Connact and Ruidri O Coner was elected king of Ireland.
As Ard Ri he recieved submission from Leith Cuin and the northen O Neill.
At Ath boy a convention was held in 1167 with church leaders Gelesius of Armagh, Laurence O Toole Archbishop of Dublin, the Chiefs of Ulidia , Meath,Brefne [ORourke, Donchad o Carroll [cearbaile] of Airgialla.
30,00 men were present at this Assembly.
The only souther tuath present was Dunchad Fealan of Decies at this triennial meeting.
At this time Dergovilla O Donnell Rourke had been with Murchad [Murrough] since 1153 some 15 years, and it may be at this Assembly that her proposed fate was discussed asking for her return with her dowry and cattle to her husband O Rourke in Breifne.
In 1168 the seat of Murrough of Leinster, Ferns, was burned by Dermot, and in that same year Aidrian Breakspear was elected Pope Adrian.
At that time there was an Irish trade in goods and slaves with the port of Bristol in England and Dermot sailed to Bristol where he was in contact with Lord Berkeley, Robert Fitz Harding.
Richard de Clare was then Lord of Penmbroke in Wales after called Stongbow by his father[the Welsh were archers called on at all times to defend England and English rulers. Hence the Price of Wales].
Along with Clare in Penbroke were Robert Fitz Stephens, and Marice Fitzgerald both sons of Henry 2 by his mistress Nesta.
Cambrisis was the bishop of St Davids in Penbroke and a Welsh man.
The English often sold children and relatives into indenture and the Irish often cited this practice as divine justice, slavery and serfdom being one of the English peoples many sins.
The English sold their children to the Irish and Bristol was a slave trade town in 1169.
Villeins or in the irish Willeins or Uilleins, were slaves and serfs that belonged to the land and went with the farm if it were sold or inherited.
This system practiced as well in Russia right down to the 1917 Bolshevick Revolution and thus tying the Irish peasant to his lordship estates prevailed through the great famine of 1845 when his lorship often paid the 10 pounds passage of his whole slave tenant population to the new Word to clear his land for cattle and sheep.
A logical conclusion if potatoes would not grow the farming peasant was no longer needed to till the soil as the emerald isle sprouted 40 shades of green grass upon which livestock profitabley flourished.
Of course many landlords in 1845 believed Trevellyns theory that the many deaths and loss of one type of potato the lumper, was a judgment from God against the disolute and sinful Irish and many not only stayed securely in their big house or vacationed in London but sent out local calvanistic preachers to sit with the dying while they died.
Oftimes occuping the only chair in the cabin while the ragged family passed away on reeds on the floor.
The Church in Ireland through Gilla maic Liac O Donnelly and Laurence o Toole and a besiging force tried to negociate with Stongbow at Dublin but the De Clare Earl prevailed.
By 1171, due to reports of the haughty unruliness against his own authority displayed by these Welshmen, Henry 2 of Anjou arrived at Dublin harbor with 400 ships, 500 knights, 4000 soldiers Myler Fitz Henry son of Nesta, William Fith Aldelm ,Humphry de Bohen ,Hugh de Lacy, and Robert F Barnard and subdued his unrully subjects from Pembroke FitzStephens, Fitzgerald, De Clare, Raymond Gross and others.
He also requested the submission of the Old Irish chiefs and lords which they willing did to recieve Henrys protection of their lands and lordships and the Welsh/Noramn conquors .
Mc Carthy submitted and pledged his leige to Henry at Waterford.
Donal O Brien of Thomand submittd at the river Suir and surrendered Limerick.
Donchad of Ossory submitted as did O Faolan, chief of Decis.
Henry set FitzStephens free and annexed Wexford.
O Rourke submitted at Dublin. Briefne had got back his wife and her cattle from king OConor who had ordered her and these cows confiscated from Leinster and returned to her lawful church approved husband.
[Never let it be said the Church has no power in Ireland. To Muire pray the 3 year old prince on his 2 knees.
Mother of God].
Ruaire OConnor Ard Ri of all Ireland submitted after a resistance agaisnt Henry at the Shannon.
Hugh De Lacy and William Aldelm rode out to recieve this submission of the king of Ireland at Christmas time 1171.
A pavilion of Irish wattles was constructed at Dublin for the signing by OConnor of the Submission.
Henry remained in Ireland through the winter of 1171-72 and in 1172 ordered a synod at Cashel rock, home of Munster Eoganact kings.
The thesis of this synod was to pass legislation
1. contracting marriage as to affinity limits,
2. baptism of infants and the caticizmic rights of the church,
3. tithes and in kind [pigs, chickens, produce] to local parish churches,
4 church lands exempted from any lay taxes nor church to pay exactions to the nobility who had given them lands and buildings;
collection of food to be given 4 times a year from farms and nobilty of their parishes,
5. clergy relieved of eric responisbily from blood fueds.
A Parliament convened at Lismore establishing Engish law as the supreme law of land and Rutland was appointed Viceroy of Lismore Ft.
De lacy was given Meath and appointed Lord Justice by Henry 2.
He was given 800,000 acres of Irish land.
Henry regranted Limerick city and Kerry to Desmond Fitzgerald and O Canayl [O Connell] got Kerry and Clare.
Hugh de Lacy a favorite of Henry of Anjou was also appointed lord Constable of Ireland.
Thomas Walters, the butler, was appointed Earl of Ormond in Tipperary.
Henry gave Dublin city to Bristol as a colony.Waterford to Henry de Bohn and Wexford to William Aldelm.
Ulster was still free and in the hands of the O Neill.
On Easter monday Herny 2 of Anjou left Dublin for Wexford and on April 17,1172 departed for Port Finna Wales St Davids.
He had spent 6 months in Ireland and disrupted this entire ancient system of chiefdomships, replacing it with earls of his chosing, Welsh/Normans rulers, and bringing in the continental church in full bloom overwhelming the old celtic order and the hereditay system of abotts and bishops in favor of appointees from Rome and Pope Adrian 2 Breakspear an Englishman.
After Henry left o Ruorke was killed by Gryffyth who was a nefew of Fitzgerald and his head hung on the gates of Dublin after he was beheaded.
De Clare ,Strongboe, living at Ferns in Leinster married his daughter to Quincy giving her territory to Duffrys of Wexford.
Leinster was under military rule.
O Faley an Irish chieftan refused to submit to Stongboe and desolated his territoty.
Quincy was killed and Stronbow recalled by Henry to France.
In 1173 Henry sent de Clare back to Ireland as Viceroy.
But in 1174 Maurice Fitzgerld attached Munster and O Brien and there was an Irish rebellion all over Ireland.
Hugh Tirrell a Norman solder, acted for de Lacy, the Lord Lieutenant and the English were massacred by the natives after Strongboe recalled Raymond and gave Basilia in marraige to de Clare.
Tyrell was charged to rebulit Meath with English forts.
In 1175 the Bull of Adrian made in 1155 was anounced to all the bishops of Ireland instucting them to read the Bull from their pulpits.
Both O Brien and O Conor kept their fielty to Henry at Lock Dearg under Myler FitzHenry and the treaty between KIng O Conor and Henry 2 which the bishops were sent to negociate with Henry was completed. The Treaty of Winsor.
There were 7 divisional provinces in Ireland in 1169
Thomnond-- O Brien
Hi Ceanselach-- Mahon, Leinster/ Meath
South O Neill Clann Colman, Malachlins
North O Neill O Neill and O Donnell
Hi Bruine--O Conor
Hi Fiachra-- O Conor Connact
The Treaty made all further Irish kings vassels to English crown and gave all control of the soil of Ireland to Henry.
In 1176 Strongboe De Clare died at Dublin in May.
Hugh Tyrrell, knight in the order of St Johns bestowed the lands of Killmahaloch to the prior of the hosptal.
Stongbow had founded Kilmainham.
In 1176 Isabel de Clare Stongboe married Wiliam Mareseall, the earl of Penbroke.
She was the daugher of Eva Murrough and de Clare.
John de Coursey, Robert Fitz Stephens and Milo de Coga remained the Kings men.
De Coursey arrived in Ireland in 1176 having come before that to France and England.
He was a baron with 22 knights and 300 soldiers.
In January of 1177 he went to Downpatrick, Ulidia and the territory of chief Dunlevy.
At that time the Popes legate Vivian was in town and the legate encouraged King Donlevy to fight and resist de Coursey with a collected force of 10,000 men.
The battle of Downpatrick was fought and the Irish routed.
Malachy was the Bishop of Down out of Bancour and de Coursey rode in on a white steed with a bird on his shield and de Coursey won the January and the June battle of 1177.
The legate went to Dublin and invoked a counsil of Bishops who upheld Adrians Bull and demanded it be obeyed or face excomunication.
The Bull favored English gold, by allowing free food for the church and O Conors son went over to Henry in Connacht and many south Wales people went to Limerick.
In 1178 de Lacy of Meath was appointed Lord Deputy and the crozier of St Patrcick was removed from Armagh to Dublin.
De Coursey was still attaching Ulster and was being attached by O Neill and Ulla.
He was forced to flee to Downpatrick and deLacy was removed as Lord Justicar and Henry generally was looing his grip.
He had given Ireland to his son prince John who later came into Ireland to adminster it and built Dublin Castle in the middle of the city just souh of the Essex Quay.
On November 14 1180, Bishop Laurence OToole died in France at the Counsil of Talman and Jefery de La Hay repalced O Toole under the Norman policy of replacing all Irish bishops with continental ones.
The Archbishop of Armagh was curtailed and John Cuming was elected Archbisop of Dublin.
In 1182 fitz Stephens son murdered Tyrell and Mc Carthy siezed Cork.
In 1185 John m Henry came to Ireland and took his army to Ulster.
John proved to be a fairly good leader and administrator and in 1200 built Dublin Castle now home of Republic of Ireland administative offices.
In the Norman overtaking of Irish language, self government and independence, it centered itself into the Ireland culture lasting till the coming in 1543 or so of Henry 8 as he began the Reformation designed to detach himself and his country from the contol of Rome and the catholic church in order to divorce his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon because she had delivered a daughter Mary not a son.
Henry proceeded to demolish and distroy the monastery system in England and in Ireland which continued through the Elizabethan age and the founding and development of religious and political freedom in North America.
Tiny Ireland in its north Atlantic positon being right in the middle of it all.
copyright May 7 2011
sourse: Notes Notes and Notes