Friday, April 29, 2011


Subject: bealtain
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 2011 13:15:50 -0400

So much has happened in this Quarter
Inducing fairy sons and daughters
Radiating all the waters
Leaving all our nerves in tatars;
Enough! Enough ! this day to pray
As we glide along our way
Hoping for a safer day
And holding wild witch forces well at bay;
For us to practice KNOW THYSELF
keep faith with family and friend
Never leave the world to end
But always to speak and push old send
And see if we ourselves cant mend
Without war and without offend.
Judi Donnelly
copyright 22 April 2011

At the time of Nial Noigiallach who was killed in the field by an irate cennsaillan noble sept in 379 AD, Bealtaine was kept regualrly at Tara hill.
The fires lite at Bealtaine were the first spring fires lit in Ireland and the cows were than run through it and purified befoe they were taken from the winter quarters to the summer hill pastures by the shepard tenders where they were kept all summer the aoire living in little self built hillside mud huts with straw roof and oftimes players of flutes and small harps.
These fires are the fiers that were contested by Patrick under Nialls Son Laugaire O Neill when Patrick lit the pashal fires before the Bealtaine fires were lit and this caused anger and disruption against the Christain teacher.
However Laugaire did not allow him to be killed for this offence.
Bealtaine was the spring gathering of a fies , stories and games held at Tara hill and apparently since at least 703 BC when the Feis was begun by Eocaid Ollam Fodla ,high king at that time.
Beal = mouth
tain = cattle
so Bealtain should become 'mouth cattle'.
The fire may have been though by the druids as a cure or help for hoof and mouth desease in cattle.
Not so much a magic superstitious rite as one of Irish practicality as home remedy for any deadly deseases the cows may have picked up on winter feed lot food.
Th spring tonic as it were as we ourself eat the dandelion greens for the same purpose.
Irleand the land of Frossach ,fields of shamrock and wine flowers.

The pattern of Astronomic science correlation of the moon revolutions and sun Equinox as devised by the Druidic Irish calculations and observed with the festivals of the Crossquarter days and the sun appearance at Brug n Boine , Ceat Ceal and the Hill of th Hags or Witches, Carn T Caillich ,in Meath.
1st RAith [Re]
1st Quarter New year--April May June
The Irish year begins March 21 Vernal Equinox.
[viewed as a lazer light at the carns of the Hags in Meath]
1 May--Bealtain Cross Quarter Day[ Fire festival]
Held at Teamair Hill
Cross Quarter day when moon has passed 40 days from the vernal equinox,
50 days remaining till the next equinox citing of the sun.

2nd Raith
2nd Quarter July August September
August 1--Lugnasa Cross Quarter Day
The harvest festival, a gay festival
crossquarter day when moon has passed 40 days from the June 21 equinox,
50 days reamining till autumn equinox.

3rd Raith
3rd Quarter October November December
November 1 Halloweeen Crossquarter Day
The moon has passed 40 days since the autumnal equinox cited at Hags hill carns September 21,
50 days remaining till December equinox.

4th Raith
4th Quarter January February March
Imbuilga, St Brigets Day, Cross Quarter Day
The moon has passed 40 days since the December 21 citing at Brug Na Boyne,[Achad Aldai Field of the All breath],
50 days remaining till the spring equinox ,March 21
The 4th quarter was not solemnitized.
No feis held at the December 21 solstice.

Imbuilg is the time of the lambing season and the freshening of the milk of the cows to make butter.
This the first celebrations of the expected March Spring Equinox, March 21 and the renewal of the year and life itself.
The Brug has a name to it in Irish, Acad Aldai,[what for all 40], older than the Dannan Brug and the Hill of the Hags does also.
Cnoc Cailleach[ hill of the old woman or witch]
These sites are totally neglected by the Modern Irish government although they are probably the most ancient astrononical clocks reamining in Europe or the Middle East.
The Crossquarter days held a feis to mark the 90 day quaters half way mark beteen the equinox; between the beginning of life and growth and the dark sunless cold and hungry winter.
The fairs should be recovered and held on the old sites as they were before the invasions to mark not a pagan ritual but the knowledge of space and time to the people, tourist, pilgrim and indiginous alike.

Judi Donnelly
copyright April 29 2011

From: Saved by Windows Internet Explorer 8
Subject: Bealtaine Festival | Celebrating creativity in older age
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 2011 13:04:27 -0400

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The Normans Came

By 1157 Gilla meic Liag known in the Church by his Latin name Gelesius was Archbishop and Abbot of St Patricks see in Armagh.

He had been appointed to this post in 1137 from his Abbottship of Derry Abbey when Malachy, later sainted, wanted to return to his original home and see of Connor/Down at Bangor Abbey.

Gilla believed in the continental unity of the Church and was oversear of the establihment of the Cistercian order at the New Abbey of Melifont built by O Carroll, prince of Oriel during Giolla Abbottship.

In 1157 a Synod was held at Melifont and in 1158 a synod at BegTaig and in 1160 a synod at Clones, home of the famous Irish lace manufacture.
The Church ,both celtic and continental, held great power in Ireland which since 1152 at the Synod of Kells held four dioceses approved by the Pope; Armagh,Dublin, Tuam and Cashel.

By 1166 Muirtagh O Conor had died in Connact and Ruidri O Coner was elected king of Ireland.
As Ard Ri he recieved submission from Leith Cuin and the northen O Neill.
At Ath boy a convention was held in 1167 with church leaders Gelesius of Armagh, Laurence O Toole Archbishop of Dublin, the Chiefs of Ulidia , Meath,Brefne [ORourke, Donchad o Carroll [cearbaile] of Airgialla.
30,00 men were present at this Assembly.
The only souther tuath present was Dunchad Fealan of Decies at this triennial meeting.

At this time Dergovilla O Donnell Rourke had been with Murchad [Murrough] since 1153 some 15 years, and it may be at this Assembly that her proposed fate was discussed asking for her return with her dowry and cattle to her husband O Rourke in Breifne.

In 1168 the seat of Murrough of Leinster, Ferns, was burned by Dermot, and in that same year Aidrian Breakspear was elected Pope Adrian.

At that time there was an Irish trade in goods and slaves with the port of Bristol in England and Dermot sailed to Bristol where he was in contact with Lord Berkeley, Robert Fitz Harding.

Richard de Clare was then Lord of Penmbroke in Wales after called Stongbow by his father[the Welsh were archers called on at all times to defend England and English rulers. Hence the Price of Wales].

Along with Clare in Penbroke were Robert Fitz Stephens, and Marice Fitzgerald both sons of Henry 2 by his mistress Nesta.

Cambrisis was the bishop of St Davids in Penbroke and a Welsh man.

The English often sold children and relatives into indenture and the Irish often cited this practice as divine justice, slavery and serfdom being one of the English peoples many sins.
The English sold their children to the Irish and Bristol was a slave trade town in 1169.

Villeins or in the irish Willeins or Uilleins, were slaves and serfs that belonged to the land and went with the farm if it were sold or inherited.
This system practiced as well in Russia right down to the 1917 Bolshevick Revolution and thus tying the Irish peasant to his lordship estates prevailed through the great famine of 1845 when his lorship often paid the 10 pounds passage of his whole slave tenant population to the new Word to clear his land for cattle and sheep.

A logical conclusion if potatoes would not grow the farming peasant was no longer needed to till the soil as the emerald isle sprouted 40 shades of green grass upon which livestock profitabley flourished.

Of course many landlords in 1845 believed Trevellyns theory that the many deaths and loss of one type of potato the lumper, was a judgment from God against the disolute and sinful Irish and many not only stayed securely in their big house or vacationed in London but sent out local calvanistic preachers to sit with the dying while they died.
Oftimes occuping the only chair in the cabin while the ragged family passed away on reeds on the floor.

The Church in Ireland through Gilla maic Liac O Donnelly and Laurence o Toole and a besiging force tried to negociate with Stongbow at Dublin but the De Clare Earl prevailed.

By 1171, due to reports of the haughty unruliness against his own authority displayed by these Welshmen, Henry 2 of Anjou arrived at Dublin harbor with 400 ships, 500 knights, 4000 soldiers Myler Fitz Henry son of Nesta, William Fith Aldelm ,Humphry de Bohen ,Hugh de Lacy, and Robert F Barnard and subdued his unrully subjects from Pembroke FitzStephens, Fitzgerald, De Clare, Raymond Gross and others.

He also requested the submission of the Old Irish chiefs and lords which they willing did to recieve Henrys protection of their lands and lordships and the Welsh/Noramn conquors .

Mc Carthy submitted and pledged his leige to Henry at Waterford.
Donal O Brien of Thomand submittd at the river Suir and surrendered Limerick.
Donchad of Ossory submitted as did O Faolan, chief of Decis.

Henry set FitzStephens free and annexed Wexford.

O Rourke submitted at Dublin. Briefne had got back his wife and her cattle from king OConor who had ordered her and these cows confiscated from Leinster and returned to her lawful church approved husband.
[Never let it be said the Church has no power in Ireland. To Muire pray the 3 year old prince on his 2 knees.
Mother of God].

Ruaire OConnor Ard Ri of all Ireland submitted after a resistance agaisnt Henry at the Shannon.

Hugh De Lacy and William Aldelm rode out to recieve this submission of the king of Ireland at Christmas time 1171.

A pavilion of Irish wattles was constructed at Dublin for the signing by OConnor of the Submission.

Henry remained in Ireland through the winter of 1171-72 and in 1172 ordered a synod at Cashel rock, home of Munster Eoganact kings.
The thesis of this synod was to pass legislation
1. contracting marriage as to affinity limits,
2. baptism of infants and the caticizmic rights of the church,
3. tithes and in kind [pigs, chickens, produce] to local parish churches,
4 church lands exempted from any lay taxes nor church to pay exactions to the nobility who had given them lands and buildings;
collection of food to be given 4 times a year from farms and nobilty of their parishes,
5. clergy relieved of eric responisbily from blood fueds.

A Parliament convened at Lismore establishing Engish law as the supreme law of land and Rutland was appointed Viceroy of Lismore Ft.
De lacy was given Meath and appointed Lord Justice by Henry 2.
He was given 800,000 acres of Irish land.

Henry regranted Limerick city and Kerry to Desmond Fitzgerald and O Canayl [O Connell] got Kerry and Clare.

Hugh de Lacy a favorite of Henry of Anjou was also appointed lord Constable of Ireland.

Thomas Walters, the butler, was appointed Earl of Ormond in Tipperary.

Henry gave Dublin city to Bristol as a colony.Waterford to Henry de Bohn and Wexford to William Aldelm.
Ulster was still free and in the hands of the O Neill.

On Easter monday Herny 2 of Anjou left Dublin for Wexford and on April 17,1172 departed for Port Finna Wales St Davids.

He had spent 6 months in Ireland and disrupted this entire ancient system of chiefdomships, replacing it with earls of his chosing, Welsh/Normans rulers, and bringing in the continental church in full bloom overwhelming the old celtic order and the hereditay system of abotts and bishops in favor of appointees from Rome and Pope Adrian 2 Breakspear an Englishman.

After Henry left o Ruorke was killed by Gryffyth who was a nefew of Fitzgerald and his head hung on the gates of Dublin after he was beheaded.

De Clare ,Strongboe, living at Ferns in Leinster married his daughter to Quincy giving her territory to Duffrys of Wexford.
Leinster was under military rule.

O Faley an Irish chieftan refused to submit to Stongboe and desolated his territoty.
Quincy was killed and Stronbow recalled by Henry to France.
In 1173 Henry sent de Clare back to Ireland as Viceroy.

But in 1174 Maurice Fitzgerld attached Munster and O Brien and there was an Irish rebellion all over Ireland.
Hugh Tirrell a Norman solder, acted for de Lacy, the Lord Lieutenant and the English were massacred by the natives after Strongboe recalled Raymond and gave Basilia in marraige to de Clare.

Tyrell was charged to rebulit Meath with English forts.

In 1175 the Bull of Adrian made in 1155 was anounced to all the bishops of Ireland instucting them to read the Bull from their pulpits.

Both O Brien and O Conor kept their fielty to Henry at Lock Dearg under Myler FitzHenry and the treaty between KIng O Conor and Henry 2 which the bishops were sent to negociate with Henry was completed. The Treaty of Winsor.

There were 7 divisional provinces in Ireland in 1169

Desmond-- McCarthy

Thomnond-- O Brien

Hi Ceanselach-- Mahon, Leinster/ Meath

South O Neill Clann Colman, Malachlins

North O Neill O Neill and O Donnell

Hi Bruine--O Conor
Hi Fiachra-- O Conor Connact

The Treaty made all further Irish kings vassels to English crown and gave all control of the soil of Ireland to Henry.

In 1176 Strongboe De Clare died at Dublin in May.

Hugh Tyrrell, knight in the order of St Johns bestowed the lands of Killmahaloch to the prior of the hosptal.
Stongbow had founded Kilmainham.

In 1176 Isabel de Clare Stongboe married Wiliam Mareseall, the earl of Penbroke.
She was the daugher of Eva Murrough and de Clare.

John de Coursey, Robert Fitz Stephens and Milo de Coga remained the Kings men.

De Coursey arrived in Ireland in 1176 having come before that to France and England.
He was a baron with 22 knights and 300 soldiers.

In January of 1177 he went to Downpatrick, Ulidia and the territory of chief Dunlevy.

At that time the Popes legate Vivian was in town and the legate encouraged King Donlevy to fight and resist de Coursey with a collected force of 10,000 men.

The battle of Downpatrick was fought and the Irish routed.

Malachy was the Bishop of Down out of Bancour and de Coursey rode in on a white steed with a bird on his shield and de Coursey won the January and the June battle of 1177.

The legate went to Dublin and invoked a counsil of Bishops who upheld Adrians Bull and demanded it be obeyed or face excomunication.

The Bull favored English gold, by allowing free food for the church and O Conors son went over to Henry in Connacht and many south Wales people went to Limerick.

In 1178 de Lacy of Meath was appointed Lord Deputy and the crozier of St Patrcick was removed from Armagh to Dublin.

De Coursey was still attaching Ulster and was being attached by O Neill and Ulla.
He was forced to flee to Downpatrick and deLacy was removed as Lord Justicar and Henry generally was looing his grip.
He had given Ireland to his son prince John who later came into Ireland to adminster it and built Dublin Castle in the middle of the city just souh of the Essex Quay.

On November 14 1180, Bishop Laurence OToole died in France at the Counsil of Talman and Jefery de La Hay repalced O Toole under the Norman policy of replacing all Irish bishops with continental ones.

The Archbishop of Armagh was curtailed and John Cuming was elected Archbisop of Dublin.

In 1182 fitz Stephens son murdered Tyrell and Mc Carthy siezed Cork.

In 1185 John m Henry came to Ireland and took his army to Ulster.
John proved to be a fairly good leader and administrator and in 1200 built Dublin Castle now home of Republic of Ireland administative offices.

In the Norman overtaking of Irish language, self government and independence, it centered itself into the Ireland culture lasting till the coming in 1543 or so of Henry 8 as he began the Reformation designed to detach himself and his country from the contol of Rome and the catholic church in order to divorce his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon because she had delivered a daughter Mary not a son.

Henry proceeded to demolish and distroy the monastery system in England and in Ireland which continued through the Elizabethan age and the founding and development of religious and political freedom in North America.

Tiny Ireland in its north Atlantic positon being right in the middle of it all.

Judi Donnelly
copyright May 7 2011

sourse: Notes Notes and Notes



In 810 AD there was a solar eclipse visable in the north country and Charle Mange son of Pepin was inagurated as king of Franks at Denis Monastary at Dungal.

With this era of enlightenment Ireland was invaded by a Danish fleet of 140 ships in 849.

These Dubhgals from the north attached the Finegals at Dublin as Anlaf, Ivar and Sitrick arrived from the north Norway [Nor Bhaoi] North Bay.

Amlaf to Dublin
Ivar to Limerick
Sitrick to Waterford and Cork.

The Irish submitted to this three pronged fleet and paid tribute.

At the time of the Lochlainn/Danish incursion Niall Caille M Aed Oirdnide m Neill was king in Ireland and king of Aileach fort in Donegal.

Niall died at the Callan River in Armagh in 843 drowning there after the battle of Leith Chaim with the Normandy Vikings who had arrived in Ireland with 60 ships.

He had been King for 13 years since 830 and is allegedly buried in Aramgh at the hill of the Monks where there is a view of all 6 northern counties.
This grave and probably a convent church left to time and decay today as are most of the historical sites of Ireland.

These roving people were known as gentiles or lochlanders and were proficiant sea voyagers. Long armed, large handed ,big men who were strong and hardy.
Not particularly interested in either God or book learning.
They were skilled in material lore, navigation and trading.
Proficinet in Sagas and sea chants and probaly decendents o fthe Phonecian [Fonecian second child of the stone age or under chiefs of sadness.

It was the ancient mariner Phonicians who developed the alphabet and gave it to the Greeks.

Niall Caille O Neill was succeeded as Irish /Aileach king by his child Aed Finnliath who ruled from 863- 876 ,after a gap of 20 years between father and son.

Aed listed as the 38th Milisian king of Ireland.

It is possible the 20 years gap noted between Niall Caille of the North and his son Aed was only the customary sharing of power between the ruling branches of the north O Neill and the South O Neill as Finnliath himself was not succeded by eitehr of his notable sons, Domhnaill of Aileach or Niall Glundub, but by Flann Sinna O Neill of the southern branch.
He who achieved the Ard Ri in 879 Ad.

Before the Viking Norse invasions the were no foreigners in Ireland.
Those from previous invasions having been absorbed creating a seaparte people with specific genetic heritage and racial charateristics.

These earlier amalgamations were of tribes of the same genetic ancestory of old.
The Partalon and Fir Bolg and the Nemedians and the formor all belonging to a comman ancestry as well maybe, the Danannain as well as the last invasion of Mili from Spain.

Then Ireland was basically left alone after this some 1500 or so years during some 5 derbfines of time had amalgamated the island population into a racial unit.

The viking of the North Bay disrupted this amalgamation even though they themselves were cousinal relations of the existing Irish population of 850 AD.

The Brehon law prevailed as common and traditional law and unwritten rights.
This was the Great Code, Senchus Mor codifided by Patric and his commission in 435 AD or so and the compilation of common and statue law for the Irish stood from 1500 years till James Stuart declared it unlawful and replaced the old Brehon compilation with the Engish law in 1603.

But Aed an ancestor of the Donnellys made alliance with the Danes and in consert with them raided Meath than held by Lorcan O Conor who Aed blinded and this prince was subseqently drowned by Anlaf of Dublin part of the Alliance of the Hi Neill.
This raid was conducted from his Hi Neill post in Armagh.

Anlaf was subsequently killed in Scotland around 846 AD at Straith Clyde.
Aed Finliath ruled in Irelands for 16 years after that and died peacefully in his own bed in 879 AD.

Ivar, brother of Anliaf king of the Norse, sailed up the Shannon Esturay to Limerrick where he established a Norse stonghold.
The Irish were inland when their Norwegian raiders cousins came who preferred to stay with their port ships rather than scourge the contryside and like the early English traders and trappers in North American and the South Seas kept their settlements near the sea and traded with the native people rather than trying to divest them of their land and stock.

The roving sailors however were brethern and demaneded tribute and women as well as quarters in bad weather so that in every farmstead were one or 2 quartered soldeirs who not only made themselves comfortable from the the fam produce but demanded satisfaction from the farmers daughter and perhaps a wife leading to much ranquor against these sailor fellows which thus has given naval forces around the world a reputation for raping, precocious livng, pirating and whoring .

The Vikings however were strong and well armed and very little could be done to distroy them.

Plus there were more in the north who would readily take ship to defend their brethern in these outpost lands of plenty by Danish standards.

The Dublin port headed by Anlaf was not even recovered after the Norse were driven off to the sea by Brian Boruma in 1014, but held their city and alliance with Leinster still even after the Norman Invasion.

They not only traded and allied with the Irish for centuries they married and bred with them creating a new race in the county called the Hiber/Norse.
This the Norse did in all their habitations from
Russia France, England ,Scotland and possibly ports south leaving us there offspring.

When the Norse men first came into Ireland they, as seamen, had a great distain for the Churchmen living in their separate enclaves made of stone.
These called the monastery which is probably a Norse word meaning womans territory.
Having first come to such abbeys run and occupied by women Nuns and probably also viewed the effeminate priggish monks as womanish.

They therefore got pleasure in tormenting these male servants of God in throwing their precious books and manuscripts ,musical chants, and other delvings and poems they considered trival, non practical pursuits by tossing these manuscripts and rolls into various lakes tied to stones to annoy and disburb the distraught christains.

This then in their desire to remain ignorant and proud of it , distroying at least 1/2 of the ancient history and storys of Ireland and the continents pre christain days.

A few pieces were sent back to Norway to their own kings and some smuggled out with trade to the various monk houses on the continent particulary to Germany,France and northern Italy.

If any went as far as Rome they have also been lost as the Vatican makes no effort to discover or reveal their secretive collection to their true owners and nations.

The Norse did eventually accept christainity after settling and establishing their own independent orders not only in Ireland but in Scotland ,Great Britain Russia the Isle, the Isle of Man and the north Bay colony of fiords and vessels itself.

In 900 Danes were driven from Dublin but Godfried, grandson of Ivar who had established the Norse settlement at Limerick recovered the town and south Ireland submitted to him.'

Although Aeds child Domnaill of Aileach ruled the north, Aed married Mal Muire, daughter of Kenneth M Alpine the grandson of Urgusia a Pict, the dauhter of Fergus who was Scots Irish.
[In the sense that he was Irish and the brother of a past king who had moved to Argyle in Scotland and hence was deamed Scots Irish not the Scots Irish we know in the US today as soldiers of Cromwells forces migrated from the Norht of Ireland to the USA].

Mac Alpine had united Albany and Pict including the stone of Destiny brought from Ireland by Achy Fergus to Argyle.

Mac Alpine took the stone to Scone where it rested till Edward I m John took it to Westminster Abbey.

Kenneth son of Alpine conquered the Picts entirely and created the Scotish kingdom by uniting Albany and Pictland now called Scotland.

Aed Finnliath married Kenneths daughher Mal Muire ,the mother of Niall Glundub O Neill, who subsequently overthrew his brother Donnall at Aileach.
Took the leadership of the north Ui Neill and thus entitled to the Ard Ri when Flann Sinna O Neill died in 916 AD.

Flann had also taken the woman Mal Marie as wife after her husaband Aed had died thus giving him control of the northern Ui Neill as well as the south.

In 907 Cormac mc Cullachan, king of Munster and Bishop of Cashel fought the battle of Moy Lena in Offaly [kings county] and the high Neill of north submittd to him.

Flann Sinna O Neill and the north Leith Cuin and Laigen fought against Mumna, Eoganach and Cormac himself was killed at Moy Lena.
600 Munster men died there as recorded in the Psalter of Cashel which later disappeared under the Norman dispute between silken Thomas of Kildare and Butler of Ormond.

It may well be in Trinity College Library still unread or it may have been spirited to England and Bodelien Library as Butler last had it from Fitzgerald as his ransom.
Of what value is an Irish history when weighed against a Norman princes life?

When Flann Sinna O Neill died [decc] in 916 his son in law Niall Glundub O Neill became King.

Flann Sinna Himself hird Danes and collaborated with these allys to conquer Munster.
But after the Battle of Dublin fought against the Danes by Niall Glundub O Neill, Niall mac Hugh ,in which Niall was killed in 920 he was succeded by Donough O Neill of the southern O Neill and was later suceeded by Nialls son,Muirchertach mac Niall mic Hugh Aed Finnliath.
Murchertach of the leather cloaks.
King of Aileach Grianna lis.

He vanquished the Danes in Ulster driving them from Loch Neagh port and the upper Bann river and in 931 he again pushed them out of Loch Erne taking from them 200 heads.

This prince of Aileach joined forces with his cousin Donagh m Neill attached Norsemen and devistated Dublin.
But Callachan king of Cashel always on the Danish side held Dublin with 200 men.

By 937 Anlaf king of Dublin fought at north Umbria against the Anglo Saxon King Athelstan.
Anlaf at the head of his Irish Norse army to the battle of BrunanBuck.

Anlaff's daugher married Constantine of Albany Scotland.
The battle of Albany was fought and many killed.
Athelstan the Saxon king won and Anlaf lost.

In 921 Armagh was burned by Godfried. The Culdees spared as they were clerics over the Cathederal.
The diposed Domnall Mc Hugh former King of Aileach and the north became a pilgrim and a culdee after Niall took over the government reins.
He had 4 sons but they did not contest his decision or his overthrow by his younger brother.
The Danes ,the Norwegains and the Saxon spoke the same language and could understand each other.

By 943 Muirchertach O Neill died in battle against the Danes.

In 944 Donogh O Neill died and Congailach O Neill ruined Dublin and the Danes.

By 956 Congalach died in battle against the Danes and Leinster and Domnall Mic Muircertach O Neill began his 24 year reign.

In 980 Domnall died and was followed by his southern ONeill cousin, Malachy the Great. Maoilsechniall took the high kingship at 30 years old.
He was the last king of the O Neill dynasty of 600 years which began with Niall 9 O Neill in 379 AD.

He proclaimed the Irish free of Danish servitude.
The battle of Tara was fought and Reginald mic Anlaf was killed.

Eidersgeal the ancient tribute was ended.
[This was the tribute established by Tauthal Teachmar about 1000 AD]

In 983 Brian Boruma mic Ceannidig of Dal Cass stood against Malachy 2 and the country was re divided between them.
Brian Leath Mog and Malachy Leath Cuin.
Prisoners were released and exchanged.

In 977 Brian and Malacy had made a treaty.
By 975 the Palace at Tara was overgrown in Weeds.
In 995 Brain Boruma burned Tara to the Ground.

The battle of Glennmama ,fought in 1000 AD eliminated Harold Mic Anlaf and 50 ONeill chiefs were with Malachy,but Malachy gave the soverienty of Ireland to Brain mic Kennedy and Tyrone O Neills and Clann Colman were excluded from the successsion by Brian.

Flaithbertach O Neill refused Brain hostages in 1000 AD.

In 1008 the southern O Neill fought Brians forces at Athlone and won.
and Aod, Prince of the north grandson of Muirchertach o Neill
Roydama was killed at the Battle of Tulka Woods, Ulster.

In 1013 Meath was invaded by Mael Morda and Danes with Leinstermen.
Flann m Malachy was killed.

Brian Kennedy refused to help Maolsechnial O Neill.

All scandanavia came to conquer Ireland totally.
Conmaol of Dublin
Cornwall and Wales and Briton all attached to the Danes.
Brian Boru was 88 years old.

1300 Danes, 300 Laigen, 1600 in all against 7000 Irish.

400 were killed at the battle of Clontarb in 1013 fought over the Easter week,Friday, Saturday and Sunday.

Brian was praying in his tent when Brudair came and struck him in the head with an ax,killing the old leader.

Malachy o Neill resumed command and in 1016 Danish Dublin was distroyed by his army and his south Ui Neill kin.
The Danish king Sitrick was again defeated in Lynster in 1022 and Malachy subdued Ulster.

In 1018 Malachy defeated the northern o Neill and the Eugenia of Cashel Eoganach as were the Connact men and in 1022 AD Malachy defeated the Norse once more at Yellow Ford, Ath Boi.

Mailsechnial died in 1022 and was the last of the dynastic o Neills.
His career had begin with Norse raids in his country and ended the same.
With this demise, kings with opposition began with Donnchad m Brian Kennedy and this path of a split in the assemby of nobles and tribes as to the chief and ruler continued till the Norman invasion when Herny 2 of England imposed his English order on the Irish lords with a program of submission and grant and regrant.

The Hiber/Norse were absorbed into the general population or went home to the Isles, Scoland, the Isle of Man and Normandy.

Their castle remains on Cook Street covering an entire city block on Cook street just south of the Liffy Merchants Quay along with other ruins and landmarks in S W Dublin along the route.

A tour is now given by the Tourist Bord through their once owned streets and quays.

The Norse established besides Dublin, Cork, Galway, Limerich, Loch Neagh ports, Waterfod, Wexford and most of todays large town of Ireland.

The Irish then as now remained clannish and farmers of their small village clachans, struggling to kep together their own culture, language, religious beliefs and rewards.

At the end of 300 years from 850-1150 the Normans came in and a new wave again put Norse who had settled in north France and mingled with the indigenious people there ruling Irish affairs.

This French Norse system prevaled from 1200-1500 when the English came under Henry 8th and his daughter culminating in 1603 with the death of Elizabeth I and the establihsment of the Plantation system with total confiscation of Irish lands and land systems of distribution.

The Irish nobility and warriors became peasants and wild geese.

The Irish peasant became the church tenant or a beggar on the road.
The Irish middle class of Bard and traders and ollam became itinerant minstrels, preforming or treating the new lordships to survive.
This system continued unenteruped and viciously throught the reign of Victoria Regina when Famine, the Great Hunger overcame the Irish hold on their country, language and life itself.

They escaped where they could to solicit more hostile situations than they had at home; ie: No Irish Need Apply and Join the Army- death at the battle fields of the US Civl War.
Grosse Island dead of typhoid and contagion. Dead of the Fever.

Serving lesser lords all over Europe and praying on their knees in the chuches and cathederals of the continent.

In 1916 some dissident Republicans rebeled openly against the Crown rule and although they we all shot in emitional rebuttal at Killmanham jail and hospital on Dublisn Westside their act held and the British troops were overcome and a treaty drawn allowing home rule .

A civil war insued over the partial free state and the total refusal of the prodestant led English Scots of N E Uslter to accept the break with the Crown, leading to closing of 6 of the northern counties and shores from the rest of the island creating economic problems and religions divides holding a noose around the neck of the small island which still threatens to hang them all if they cannot be drawn and quatered before hand by the 86 billion debt and the land jeprosized. The remaining 5 Million people left to cope with this in 2010.

As they came in centuries past to the western ilse, the emerald of grass ,the secuity of the herd, the untapped resourse of the great forest, and the healty inovative people,the history of invasion continues under EU s laws and the islands children stand poised to survive by Immigration.

Judi Donnelly
copyright 1 May 2011

sourse: Notes

Monday, April 25, 2011



In 1213 AD Mc William m Richard Burke of Clan Ricard submitted to O Donnell at Athenry.
Brollagain was O D's steward.

Proir to the great battle of Down in 1260 the battle of Drum Dearg in which 352 Irish were killed along with their appointed Lords.

Brian O Neill who had submitted to the Lord Justicare in 1252 and had been seated as Lord of Tyrone by the English was their prince and leader.

Most of the northern chiefs and lords fought with him and were killed;
OCarrie, Loughlin, O Kane , O Henery, Mc Cann, DuvDirma, O Gormly, OHanlon.

The O Cane chiefs killed were 15.

For Connacht Gilcrest and O Connor, Donough, Finn, Mulrony, Teige, Gara, O Quinn, Murray.

All thse men died at Down fighting the English Norman invader, The Earl if Salisbury ,Espee.

King Brians head was cut off and taken to London where it was displayed on the Tower and his story recorded by Mac Namee of Mide his Bard.
Either John ,son of Henry 2 or his son Edward 1 was than king of England.

In 1241 the Battle of Caimeirghe fought in Ulster between
Domnall Mag Loughlin ,King of Tir Eogain and an alliance between Brian O Neill and Maelsechlainn O Domnaill [Donnell] king of Tir Conaill.
The alliance won this battle against Domnall Loughlin and Brian ONeill was inagurated King.

Eicnechan O Donnell 1201-07 was followed by his son Domnall Mor 1207-41 who was followed by his eldest son MaelSeachlainn 1241-47.
Than his second son Godfraid O Donnell from 1248-58 and finally his third son Domnaill Oc who ruled Tir Conaill from 1258-81.

Domnall Og ,m Domnaill Mor m Eicnechan ODonnell [1201-07], Prince of Tir Coniall.

His son Aodh [Hugh] 1281-90 is listed as being again inagurated from 1291-1333.

Grandson of Hugh [Aodh] of Cinel* Owen ONeill.

In the north East in 1258 Donall O Donnell chief of Tir Conail fought the English Normans and lost.

By 1281 Donnell Og O Donnell was lord of Tir Conail, Fernmanagh, O Oriel and Ulster.
Connacht and Briefne were his allies.

However he was killed by his cousin or brother and succeeded by his eldest son Aodh [Hugh] m Donnell Og [1281-90] m Hugh of Cinel Owen the north peninsilla of the country, the O Neill.

In 1290 Donnell O Donnell overran Cinel Owen expelling Nial Culunagh O Neill but with clann O Donell he was overtaken by Turlough O Donnell who deposed his Brother Aod [Hugh] O Donnell in 1290.

Toirdealbach ODonnell thus ruled from 1290-1291 and overran Donnell ODonnell and restored Culanagh ONeill.
This he did with the aid of the Scot gallowglas and Clann Donnell .

Hence both Clann Eogain on the north sea and Cinel Conail to its southwest were ruled by lords of force and not election or inheritance as the ODonells superceded themselves and each other.

The O Neill geneology does show a Domnaill m Brian m Niall Ruad m Aed in mac Aen Toiniese being inagurated in Tyrone after the battle of Down were his father Brian was killed and beheaded.
Domnall however in this enterprise of 1290 and was deposed a second time as O Neill.

Because of this internicene fighting over land, power and prestige, Richard Burke who had been granted Connact lands by king Henry 2 expelled Turough O Donnell from Tir Owen and replace him with Niall Culanagh O Neill as the O Neill had always owned Tir Eogan but a soon of the Red Earl left Nial Culanagh O Neill was killed.
O Donnel was banished from Tyrone and Brian Og O Neill was inagurated the O Neill.

Brian Og O Neill the second son of Donnall the tanist was inagurated O Neill.
Turlough was deposed in 1291 and Aed O Donnell ruled again til his death in 1333.

He was succeeded by his son Conor [Concobar] in 1333 who ruled till 1342 and was succeded by his son Aonghus ODonnell the second son of Seaan O Donnell who ruled from 1352-59 , was deposed and resumed rule in 1362-1380.

Seaan was succeeded by his brother Niall O Donnell's son ,Toirdealbach an Fiona who ruled from 1380-1422 and was suceeded by Nial Garb m Toirdealback m Nial m Aed m Domnall Oc m Domnall Mor m Eichnechan.
Bringing the O Donnell regime of Tire Conail from 1422-1439
Under Niall Garb, who sided with the Engilsh invader.

His brother Neachtan ruled from 1349-52 during the peiod of the Black Death of 49-50 and he was succeeded by Ruaidri O Donnell in 1352-54.

Nial Garb was the father and progenator of Aed Ruad.

It was Aed Ruad of 1592-1602 son of Sir Aod ,grandson of Manus m Aod Dub m Aod Ruad m Niall Garb who with O Neill rode to Kinsail where both were routed by Earl Essex, Mountjoy and the Gaelic Order of the north finally ended.

This Aod the great great great grandson of Nial Garb, the English ally.
6 generations removed.

His derbfine would have begun with Aed Dub his great grandfather.

Aedh Ruad his namesake was the end of the provious derbfine of Nial Og Aed O Donnell.
The one before that the proverbial 4 generations of rule from 1200 to 1600.
This being 400 years We assume the derbfine began in 1200 with Eicnechan but that may not be so with the records available lost of his ancestor.

75 years
300 years.

Figuring a derbfine of 300 years back from Aed Ruid to the beginning derbfine would be Domnall Og in 1258.

Two progenators before him only listed Eicnechan grandfather being the begining of the era in 1000 AD.

Richard Burke as well as imposing French order on Tir Eogan plundered Tir Conaill as he returend to his appointed Connact holdings known as Clan Ricard.

It was this internicene killing and usurpation in the Northwest that caused emnity and disunity between the decendends of Niall Nine O Neill [379].
Eoghain of Tir Eogain [Owen] and O Donnells of Tir Conaill with a pattern of warfare against each other that continued off and on for 300 years between the two cinels until Rory ODonnell, Aed Ruid O Donnell and Hugh Aed O Neill united to go down to defeat at the Battle of Kinsail and hence brought the last remaining stronghold of Gaeldom under Engish rule.

By 1292 Richard Burke had become by force the Red Earl of Ulster and the Irish lords reamined dispersed fighing and loving among themselves as did Connacht amongh the OConors tuaths and septs.

In 1295 Brian m Aed Buide O Neill, Lord of Tyrone was killed by his cousin Donnel O Neill along with many of his forces and friends.

This same year 1295 internicnine rivalry between Aodh Hugh O Donnell [+ 1333] and his brother Turlouch O Donnell [+1303] over titles given by the English, distroyed much of TirConell.
The country churches included.

In 1296 England under Edward I invaded Scotland and called on the Irish Norman lords Richard Buke, Gerald Fitzgerald , JohnFitz Thomas earls in Ireland to fight this war.

The force distoyed abbeys and killed many priests and women in Scotland.
By 1303 Tir Conaill under Hugh Aed O Donnell killed his brother Turlough which started a war all over Donegal and Tir Owen.
The English were also involved and hence all three sides Tir Conail, Tir Eogain and Norman died.

However Hugh O Donnell won the war and lived happily ever after.

This rebellion by O D may have been inspird by the English Earls Normans again being called to Scotland which produced a northern insurrection.

By July 1315 John 22 was elected Pope at Rome and in 1407 King Edward II died on 7 July.

In 1315 Edward Bruce of Scotland brother to the Scot king landed in Antrim with a great fleet of 300 ships.

However the Connacht OConnors sided with the Norman Richard Burke, the Red Earl against Bruce who defeated Burke that year in Mayo [mag Eo].
Hence division was again created between the north O Neill and the Connact men on the battle fields of Mayo wherby the O Neill/Bruce faction prevailed and Edward Bruce was offered the crown of Ireland by Donnall Og O Neill.

However Bruce brought poverty, famine and distuction to the land and he was finaly defeated at Faughart in October 1318.

In 1333 Aed m Donnel Og ODonnell died.
He was tigerna of Tir Conaill, Inish Owen, Fermanagh, Cinel Moan, Briefne [O Rourke].

He had reigned 50 years and is buried at Assaroe [Eas Ruid] Falls now fenced in by the Irish power and light Company .
Its history lost to local and tourist alike as Ballyshannon is repressed from the manys stories of pre Republican times.

Aodh Hugh O Donnell was succeded by his son Conor O Donnell.

By 1348 Nial Garve O Donnell died and under Neachan his brother 1349-52 the Black Death struck Ireland as well as all Europe.

O Donnells are decended from O Baiscinn Caibre, South West Clare, Moy Tura

They are the children of Saraid m Conn m Feardach Finnfeachnach m Tuathal Teachmair the ligitimate whose mother was Baine of Alba.
Manus ODonnell married the 8th earl of Kinsale's daughter Eleanor and hence those decedants were part Norman.

*cinel would simply mean the decendants of Niall Niogiallach.

A sept would be a division of the cinel and a clann would be the entire combined desendants of the children of Niall Nine.
Kinel the English simply meand the kin of Niall
in the Irish it is Cinnial, kin of Niall.

Judi Donnelly
copyright 22 April 2011

sourse: notes from Joyce History of Ireland and geneology table from New Word Histoy of Ireland, Martin Moody and Byrne

Wednesday, April 20, 2011



two men reparing to their homes just in the twilight, were obliged to pass through this churchyard, or take a considerable circuit.
They had come up the hill, and were beginning to proceed through the cemetary, when they heard just on their left, and apparently proceding from a tomb, the most awful groans and frighful outcries , and a shower of red hot cinders fell on them.

yet after getting to some distanc, they plucked up courage and returned.
They were recieved in a more fearflul fashion this time, and once again feld in terror.

Unacountable as it may appear, they made a third attempt; but this time the noise was more appaling than ever,and a terrible being with a wild outcry, sprang up from behind the monunment and rushed to them.
Down the hill they flew like deer, and after wild flight, took refuge in the first cabin they reached.
This was their version.

We supply another from the mouth of the fiend, then a young stripling and now a plodding citzen of Dublin, and proprier of a farm near this extensive and ancient cemetary.

He was seated on the stone enclosure, when he was in the glooom the two men approacing up hill.
He at once concieved the design of frightening them, and for this purpose enscounded himself behind a tomb with a provision of small stones.
The ghoastly machinery consisted in the groans and howlings he contrived to make, and the shower of pebbles* he discharged on the adventures.
At the third attempt he himself was started by a rustling among the dry weeds and stones behind and his headlong charge was the result of his panic.
Of course he managed not to come up with the fugitiVes.


Patrick Kennedy collection

Presented by
Judi Donnelly
copyright 16 April 2011

sourse: Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts,Patrick Kennedy,
mac Millan and Co, London, 1866

Monday, April 18, 2011



In old times in Ireland there was a great man of the Fitzgeralds.

The name on him was Gerald, but the Irish, that always had a great liking for the family, called him Gearoidh Iarla*.
He had a great castle or rath at Mullaghmast, and whenever the English government were striving to put some wrong on the county , he was alway the man that stood up for it.

Along with being a great leader in a fight, and very skillful at all weapons, he was deep in tne' black art' and could change himself into wahtever shape he pleased.

His lady knew that he had this power, and often asked him to let her into some of his secrets, but he never would gratify her.
She wanted particulary to see him in some strange shape, but he put her off and off on one pretence or another.
But she wouldnt be a woman if she hadnt perseverance; and so at last he let her know that if she took the least fright while he'd be out of his natural form, he would never recover it till many generations of men would be under the mould.

"oh! she wouldnt be a fit wife for Gearoid Iarla if she could be easily frightened'.
'Let him but gratify her in this whim, and he'd see what a hero she was!'

So one beautiful summer evening,as they were sitting in the grand drawing room he turned his face away from her an muttered some words,and while you'd wink he as clever and clean out of sight, and a lovey goldfinch was flying about the room.

The lady, as courageous as she thought herself, was little startled, but she held her own pretty well, especially when he came and perched on her shoulder,and shook his wings, and put his little beak to her lips, and whisteld the delightfullest tune you ever heard.

Well he flew in circles rounD the room, and played hide and go seek with his lady, and flew out into the garden, and flew back again, and lay down in her lap as if he was asleep, and jumped up again.

Well, when the thing had lasted long enough to satisfy both, he took one flight more into the open air; but by my word he was soon on his return.
He flew right into his ladys bosom, and the next moment a fierce hawk was after him.
The wife gave one loud scream, though there was no need, for the wild bird came in like an arrow, and struck against a table with such force that the life was dashed out of him.
She turned her eyes from his quivering body to where she saw the gold finch an instant before, but neither goldfinch or Earl Garrett did she ever lay eyes on again.

Once every seven years the Earl rides round the Curragh of Kildare on a steed, whose silver shoes were half an inch thick the time he disapeared; and when these shoes are worn and as thin as a cats ear, he will be restored to the society of living men, fight a great battle with the English, and reign King of Ireland for two score years.

Himself and his warriors are now sleeping in a long cavern under the Rath of Mullaghamast.

There is a table runing along thorough the middle of the cave.

The Earl is sitting at the end, and his troopers down along in complete armour both sides of the table,and their heads resing on it.

Their horses saddled and bridled,are standing behind their master in thir stalls at each side and when day comes the millers son thats to be born with six fingers on each hand will blow his trumpet, and the horses will stamp and whiny, and the knights awake and mount their steed and go forth to battle.

Some night that happens once in every seven years, while the Earl is riding around the Curragh, the entrance may be seen by any one chancing to pass by.

About a hundered years ago, a horse dealer that was late abroad and a little drunk saw the lighted cavern, and went in.

The lights and the stillness, and the sight of the men in armour cowed him a good deal and he became sober.

His hads began to tremble and he let fall a bridle on the pavement.
The sound of the bit echoed through the long cave,and one of the warriors that was next him lifted his head a little and said in a deep hoarse voice,
'Is it time yet ?'

He had the wit to say,
'Not yet but soon will', and the heavy helmut sunk down on the table.

The horse dealer made the best of his way out,and I never heard of any other one getting the same opportunity.

from the writings and narration of Patrick Kennedy

*Gear is the Irish spelling for German the Gearman;
oid is pronounced 'ead' and is said 'ald' meaning old ;
ead means jelous or envious;
oi is also pronounced ae which is pronounced au like auld;
fitz is a son of;
So Fitz Gearoid would essentially mean
son of the old german, or son of the jelous gearman.

The spelling of Irish lapses into pronuciation spelling in the middle Irish which would be from 1200 -1600 and again takes on the sound phonetic writing of the English from 1600-2000 Ad

This change in script comes with the continental church friars and priests replacing the native Irish as bishops etal; and these writings retained the old pronuciation of the Irish which is the sound written down in the English words .

Presented by

copyright April 16 2011

spourse: Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, Patrick Kennedy,
Macmillan and Co , 1866



If any of the English readers are ignorant of the social position of tailors in the remote districts of the county, let them hereby learn that Brian Neill, the unlucky hero of this narrative when he arose on Monday morning, betook himself to the farmers house where his services were required, took the measure of his clients, sat on the large kitchen table, kept his goose in the turf fire, mended and made clothes, chatted with the women, and there reamained till his business was finished.
He than repaired to some other farmstead where his presence was desirable, and thus his life glided on.

Brian was employed as mentioned one afternoon on Mrs Rooneys great table.
He had been remarked all the day for an unwonted silence, and now began to acquaint Mrs Rooney with the subject on which his thoughts were employed.

'Be this and be that, maam, its very strange that I should have the same dream for the last three nights.
There it was, in the rath of Knocmor, I saw as plain as I see you now, a big grey stone, and an old thorn tree, and the hole between them, and the crock at the bottom of it.
I declare to you I cant stand it any longer.
Ill take a spade and shovel, and try my fortune and have it off my mind.
You neednt tell anybody where Im gone'.

About three hours afterwards he returned in a very dismantled condition, his hair in moist flakes, his eyes glassy, and his whole appearance betokening one who would drop to peices if some strong power were not keeping him together.

'Oh maam honey!',he faltered out, 'let me lie down somewhere; I think I'll die.'

Mrs Rooney had him put into the bed belonging to the servant boy,and good naturaedly brought him a warm drink of whey in a quarter of an hour or so.

She than sat down by the bed; and when he had refreshed himself, and seemed somewhat restord, she requested to know how he had faired after he had left the house.
This is the account he rather reluctantly gave after some pressing:

'When I got to the rath maam, I wondered to find the stone and the old thorn just as I dreamed they were.
Bedad I took of my coat,and fell to, and dug and shoveled, and shoveled and dug till my poor arms were tired.

I rested myself for a little while, and then fell to again.

Well I think I was down between three and four feet, when I felt somthing hard against the spade.
I cleared away the clay carefully from about it, and what was it but a heavy crock, just like the very one I saw in the dreams.

I lifted it out on the heap of clay I threw up, and was going to get the cover when I felt myself getting as weak as water.
I was trembling indeed, and my heart fluttering from the first touch I gave it with the spade.
well what would you have of it!
I fell down in a stugue and dont know how long I was in it; and when I came to myself the very sight of the crock brought my heart to my mouth.

I done nothing after that but crawled back as well as I could.
I suppose all happened to me because I did not say a prayer, or take any holy water with me to sprinkle a ring around the place.

I think I'll go asleep now';' I cant keep eyes open.'

so he slept soundly,and never woke till next morning,and the first thing he was conscious of was a strong inclination to go to the rath again, and recover the crock, if it still remained there.
He went in all haste, found the spade and shovel, the heap of clay, and the pit but no sign of the crock or it cover.

He came back, over powered with vexation at the silly way in which he had behaved the day before,and begged Mrs Rooney to give him his crock,and promised to give her a good handful of its contents.

Crock! said she 'What are you talking about?'

'Sure I am talking about the crock I dug up in the rath of KnocMor yesterday,and that I told you about after you gave me the drink of whey in the bed'.

'Oh my poor man , you are raving!
I gave you a drink sure enough, but this is the first time your opened your mouth about a crock.'

But sure if you come you can can see the hole and the clay, and here is the spade and shovel that I used.'
And if they are, is that a reason I should have your crock, that I never heard of till this blessed hour?'

There was a great commotion in the neighborhood.

Several people, including Mr and Mrs Rooney, went to the rath,and saw the hole in the clay, but that did not prove that Mrs Rooney got the money.
All that the sharpest neighbors could make out was the absence of the farmer and his wife from their house for about an hour on the evening in question.
It all resulted in poor Brian losing his reason,and coming to vituperate Mrs Rooney about once a week at her own door.

We will say of her that she always gave him something to eat on these occations, and a coat or breaches when his need was sore for good clothing.
By degrees the farm was improved,and more land taken.

Her children were well provided for,and so are such of other grandchildren as are now living.
Ill got money does not in general produce such comfortable results.

told by Patrick Kennedy

presented by
Judi Donnelly
copyright 16 April 2011

sourse: Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, Patrick Kennedy, Mc Millan and Co.,London, undated publication


Legends of Ireland

In the Irish folklore rests the remenants of the once great fili and bardic culture and the druidic magic of pagan times.
At the coming of Christ under Patrick druidic lore of magic and science passed to the inadequate control of the church preachers and later in a fragmented state to the storytellers, the seanachie and folkore.

The tales often relay various features of land as well as the people who inhabited them and Mr Kennedy relays some of these to us as his collections goes along.

One of the mountains forming the North West boundry of Wexford was called Cooliagh on White mountain.

That a skiagh, which was a flat wicker basket used in ancient days, as a form over which strong tough untaned leathers were placed and attached forming a suitable shield against attack by knife sword and ax.

The wicker skeeoge was also used as a strainer for potaots having been boiled and the hot water drained of into pools at the base of the yard in which they were cooked.
[a yard being 3 feet the space round a fire to cook these potatos].

The Irish did a lot of living out of doors.
The climate being mild and the shelter skanty and dark.

Wicker techniques were also highly develped as a constuction material for these houses.

Posts being driven into the ground and these lined with wicker forms and then covered in a mud clay mix forming walls.
Roofs being added over roof poles with rows of thatch and straw or reeds from the lakes.

Skills almost completly lost today but a mainstay of life before the invasions.

These ancient dwellings, Raths and cottages, used the natural at hand materials and required mimimal tools beside the hands of men and the brawn of strong sholders.

Rath circles consisted of around 60 or 100 poles in the ground each set at equal distance giving a circumfrence probably based on the 360 degrees of the actual mathmatical circle.
Approximately 3 feet apart -our yard- measure.

The rath enclosure was sufficiently strong to hold in cattle and sheep, the children ,and to keep out wolves lynx and other predatory wild cratures.

Usually the entirety of the enclosure was large enough to accomadate 3 or 4 cottage structures holding the separate household of a family of 3 or 4 generations and was known by the name of the progenator such as Rath Cool.
Center, of course, of the Cuils.

At the particular area discribed it is noted a Munster sept had emigrated there to North East Wexford and this tribal people were still living in N E Wexford in 1816 when Kennedy was among them.
And they still relate their legends as outlined in 'The Profit Before his Time' ,relayed to Kennedy by Owen Jourdan at Cromogue farm house ,7 miles from the place of the legend happening which was near Slieve Buie [yellow hill].

As Jourdan of Duffrey is Norman name, we are allowed to know these hills were occupied by some of their warriors from the 1169 AD invasion and henceforth after that century.

The legend itself reveals studies of Astrology and occult works of Agrippa and the keeping of servants.

Ireland was never detched from Europe and its civilization ,or for that matter, the east as some scholars of recent years would have us believe, as little tangable evidence exists except the references of stories, poems and such.

Many of the folk tales reveal a working incite into animals as having speech and having qualities that reveal the belief, as Africa's Uncle Remus tales, that man and animal are related in may ways in their being.
Just as the fairy tales related a supernatural connection between
mortal and spiritual beings.

The Cat is a particular symbol of legend consepts of shape changing days which relate deeply to the Hindue belief of returning in another form from one existance to the other according to ancient events on earthly works.
A religious significance as well as a subconcious awarness of genetics and DNA.

The tales also reveal the working of human desires in areas of sex and services and in a relayer of religious information and deaths along the roadways.

The cat assumed an aura of eerieness and other worldiness and an ablilty to have 9 lives and be indistructable.

The legends again revive funs and activities such as a carmans drive from Bunclody to Dublin of a morning to Luke Byrnes on Francis Street where all the carmen [transporters] from Wicklow and Wexford gathered. Which place was a tap room that served beer, not in glass ,but in pots.
But I suppose you could have a pot of beer and a jar of wiskey.

Witches and the devil or almost, always discribed in folk lore as an assortment of wild orgy and excessive drinking of foriegn wine.

Usually old women are the partisipants as the crones partook of the punch becoming riotous and gleefull and these drunken beings went about the countyside and often to England in a Booliann Bui and soaring up chimneys like Santa Clause.

These creatures in this shape would pass through small holes, key holes and such ,and their excursions, usually to get more wine and become even more riotous and detached from body and their ecstacy usually followed by unconciousness as they passed out and the following hangover.

The Irish have never claimed an unfamiliarty with the drink.

The memory of armed kings crop up in the legend with belief of their immortality.
Such as the appearance of James 4 of Scotland after his survival of Flooden Battle; to appear when his county wanted him.
Or Don Sebastion of Portugal who it was believed did not die in Africa.
Or Holdan of Denmark waited from his cavern or the legendary king Arthur watching on the Ilse of Avalon.

The Lianun* Sighe fate of mortals loved by women fairys were never free of this connection without their consent and the system of Lianun go back to pre christain Ossin and Fionn legends and the Tuirean included the shape changing of humans to animals as represnted in Bran and Sceoluing.

Under pagan rule the rules of engagement were not looked on as unnatural but under Christain times the mortal so bound cannot be freed from such an alliance without a finding of a replacement for Himself.
Such as the miltary draft allows a well off person to buy off his sons obligation or for a substituted friend to go into battle for another.
Such as a Champion for a King.

Such a possessed person can force the Lianun to convey riches and wordly goods on favorites but Himself cannot recieve such for Humself.
As such, the king or ruler can require a Lianun to provide for others but not for himself as he Himself is a slave to the Sie [shee].

The mortal familar becoming the wreached slave but at his rashly trying to tear assunder the veil that divides the visable from the invisable world.

As such man does this day ,tempting Fate and the invisable power of radiation and fision of the invisable world and bringing on Himself a future mysery of its effects, desease, poison and distruction of Himself.

All these legends of old went from the professional bards and story tellers, the poets to a lower range of weavers of tales the seanachie to the uneducated peasants , to a degraded form to be told by a scealuide of the lowest rank.
Told at rustic cottage firesides.

Around Kildare Co. rests the neighborhood of Borrahen, Baltry and Rath Coffey.
It is an area where much garden produce can be grown and hence the fertile land also produces comfortable farmers like Pat Gill and storeytellers such as Molly Anthony whom the Church refused to santify by a funeral Mass after she died, so illuminating was her conversation and life.

Molly had a son who had some vetinary skills which he was curing cattle with herbs and did not profess any supernatural or magic gifts.

This Jack Anthony son of Molly was riding along with his friend Pat Behan in Pats jaunting cart when a woman wearing a red cloak appeared from the bushes and called to Jack it was time for him to come.

Jack excused himself from the car and went to say a word with this neighbor of his.

Jack went over the fence and through the bushes and when his friend heard nothing he had his servant climb the fence to find Jack.

But the servant looking along the ditch over the fence was perplexed.

His master went to see this and found he too could see right and left and up the slope but no Jack nor a red cloaked woman were visable.

However, months later Jack Anthony did reappear but could not give an accurate account of his disapearance.
This undoubtedly a visit from his Lianun fairy consort.

At Ballenglas a hill called Bally Carrigeen ,Rocky Pass ,had on its top a ring of round flagstones [stone circle] 9 yards round -being 27 feet in cicumfrence.
These called Fan a Cuil s griddle stones.
On side of the high place next the circle of stones, are two long turf strips of bright green; the resting place of Fionn mcCuil and his wife, who rose early each morning walked down the slope to wash their faces in a stream and baked their breakfast cakes on these flagstones.

Near the burial site was the church of Kilranlagh a totally catholic church yard bearing no remains of any Prodistant.

This church boundry wall is built of loose stone with a narrow top and each time a funeral is held, each man coming, brings a stone picked up on the way to place atop the circular ring fence of the Church.
A deep round well rests outside the Kilraneagh church boundry wall with a long recess just above it.

This recess is full of wooden cups.

These cups provided by those buring a child under 5 years of age.

The spirit of the last intered must suppy all his or her predecessors with a cup of water [Uisce] and watch over the sacred enclosure till the next funeral.

In Ireland the Feach- to see- story is common.
A phanthom seen in the morning is of good fortune and long life but if in the evening death awaits.

A Miss Strickland was in the household of Queen Elizabeth I, when in 1603 Lady Guildford on waitng by the Queen slipped out for a breath of air and saw her majesty a bit out of her privy chambers sleeping body.
Mrs Guildford was conserned at this as she feared being caught at leaving the royal patient aone and this terrified her so she returned immediately to the privy chamber where lay the Queen of England still sleeping.

Frequently non believers in Fetchs saw or beheld these apparations and died shortly thereafter even though they held this phantom to be superstition.

Apparations are common In Ireland in old ruins, old churchs, old lands and bogs, along the night road and usually portent disaster for the viewer.
They are ,in effect, the same school of premonition as the Banshees.

* Lia means a rock or a doctor
unse means an ounce

therfore liaun might mean doctor ounce or stone ounce.
I would chose the later an ounce of stone

Judi Donnelly
copyright 17 April 2011

sourse:Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts,Patrick Kennedy, Mcmillan and Co., 1866

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Legend of Loch Mask


At Loch Mask in south Mayo, just east of Joyce Country a prince of the house of Flaithbhertach [Flaherty] climbed with his companion Diarmid over the rugged high passes of these steep mountains.

Cormac went over these passes like a mountain goat sure of foot and needing no breathing space to recover from a climb.

He had firm footing and a silouette of youths full beauty when he stopped , One leg on the mountain path and the other behind in a form of suspended motion, as he paused momentarily to survey the scene, subline and georgeous of the beauty of the land below.

On one side of the pass lay the bright reflective Atlantic in the autum setting sun ,and on the other the untrodden wilds before him from wence the sunbeams had long since disappeared and the mists already runing round the heights and over the distance in vapor.
A moment in Nature never to be forgotten.

He turned to Diarmaid his faithful companion and asked him if the sunset did not forbode a coming storm.

'It truely does', replied Diamid.
'The sweet to know there is an eye to mark our coming'.

And this was true as there was a bright eye awating the arrival of prince Cormac.
This the eye of Eva impatient for the arrival of the Flaherty
as she gazed out over Loch Mask looking for his boat but no distant oar disturbed the calm and quiet lake.

she was jelous of his love and friendships and wanted him by her but for only a moment.

She glanced again over the loch to its distant grey mountains whose names lay undisturbed by detalils which were only discovered by daylight.

The last lone Rook winging its way to the distant wood ,the flickering flight of the Bat by her window,all told Eve of the approaching night. Yet Cormac had not come.

She sighed as only a lover can sigh for the anxious moments waiting for a beloved, and taking up the small harp of her country, with a single row of wire, she played forth a plantive aire of native melody full of tenderness and pathos.
As she played in her dark and silent chamber she came to tears for her lover and alone, she went forward brushing away tears from her beautiful blue eyes,out to the Hall of her society to disapaite her sadness.

As the night closed over Cormac's passage the storm burst upon them as the Atlantic waves burst its furty over the Joyce County mountains.

The wind rising in wild gusts with eddys of dashing rain to deluges of large drops turning the mountain gullies into temporary rivers.

The path so slippery as to render it deadly and dangerous to even the practiced foot.

The prince hero strode on with his attendent Diarmid as the torrents passed on into it wild roar above mighty thunder peels and its blue lightening flashed revealing the deptys of the valley abyss beneith.

Cormac and Diarmid pressed on unawre of the deadly interuption that awaited them.

As they came round a projecing craig of a ravine, a burtal course voice called out,


Cormac stopped instantly and his weopon reached his hand
as his eyes searched for the voice that had dared cross the path of The Flaherty.

He saw no one and called out,
'who was there?', and the cold rude voice called back to him,
'Thy mortal foe.'

The intruder told him he would never behold Eva as his bride and share her bed.

'Thow liest Traitor!' called Cormac '
'Avoid my path for death is in it.'

Thou sayest truth', called the stanger.
'Come on and thy word shall be made good.'

Just than a flash of lighting illuminated the scene and Cormac saw, a few paces before him ,two large armed men .
One of them he recognized as Emman [Edward] O Flaherty.
'Emman Dubh!',cried Cormac .
His name for his black haired cousin.

The two challenged each other and Cormac went foward to meet the midnight waylayer saying.

'I have never wronged you Emman Dubh.'
'Stand by me Daiarmaid.'
and the 2, Emman Dubh and fair Cormac closed in mortal combat.

But,oh foul and treacherous, the fiend had entraped Cormac of the high spirit in an ambuscade.
A third assassin laying in wait as Cormach rushed for the fierce encounter, the annonymous stabed him in the back and laid Cormrac lifeless at the feet of his enemy.

Eva was restless and with each gust of the tempest and each flash of lighting and burst of thunder, her terror was awakened over Cormac, the beloved of her soul, and his exposuer to the storm fury and she hoped he was safe in the castle of some friends, the chara, over the mountains.

The morning came at last and silent witness of the storm's fury were shone.
Branches of a naked tree shorn of its leaf.
The earth strewn with half green, half yellow foliages.

Soft autumn had covered in gold the summer green verdue in evidnece of the early storm, forerunner of the coming autumnal equinox [September 21].

Nature this day was calm and cold.
The mountains dressed in grey and scattered clouds stragling over Heaven as though they had been torn assunder.
The water of the lake ,short and quick lashing on the loch shore, told of the night waves of white foam a few hours before.

A small skiff was surrounded broken on the stand.
This the skiff that was to have brought Cormac to his betroved.

Her father and his freinds all drawing ill omen from the wrecked skiff.

The girl was not told of this discovery but days passed and the father knew his child must be told.

But who will tell her the fatal tale?

But Eve knows from gossiping tongues and dark meanings.
The bewildered Eve knows Cormac is dead and will never come to her. Gone forever.

She was bereft of reason.
Harmeless as a child.

She frequented often the Cave of Cong where a river rose from beneith a low rock. Passed on a strand of peebles and lost itself in the dark recess of the cavern.
This river formed by Loch Mask waters hurrys through its subterranian channell and rises again at Cong, becoming a tributary to Loch Corrib.

Eve remained here for hours believing her lost Cormac had drowned and she hoped to arrest his body as it passed through the Cave of Cong in the subterranian river.

Month after month she watched.
Winter and gentle Spring found her watching by the stream
like a water nymph.

Eventually Eve disappeared and no search could find her.

The broken hearted Eve was never more heard from and the county thereabouts believes the fairys took pity on her devoted love and carried her away to be with her betroved.

from the Legend of Loch Mask by Samuel Lover

presented by

copyright 12 April 2011

Legends and Tales of Ireland ,Samuel Lover, RHA ,Simpkins, Marshall Hamilton, Kent and Co, London
Glascow Thomas D Morison, publication undated.

Monday, April 11, 2011

CNOC se O gobhna


A mountain in Tipperary has a central peak with a ledge built on its conical top and ladies went there for pleasure parties,
but it has long since been shut down.

This top used to have a pasture where the herd was taken for the summer and that pasture spot had been an old faery ground.
When the faerys of summer heard the lowering of cattle on their gaboling ground it angered the fairys and the fairy chieftainess took a way to get rid of the cows and the herder.

She thus thought when the harvest moon shone brightly on the hill and the stars twinked above that she herself would come and dance for the herder in shapes now one, now another, but all times an ugly and frightening sight to behold.

The poor herder was thus frightened and called all the saints for help but they were of no help and paid him no attention.

The condition lasted over him all night while the cattle covorted and scampered about until the sun rose and this want of rest turned the cattle into sickly pinning beasts not eating and gaining and thus having many accidents.
Every night some beast maimed or killed or drowned in the river and in this predicament no herdsman could be found for any bargain who would tend the cattle.
The famer thus lost substance and the hill land was completely reocupied by the fairy troop and he could not pay his rent.

Now at this time a man called Laurence Hoolahan who played the pipes the best in 15 parishes came down the road.
He was a dashing fellow and had no fear and if he was plyed with liquor he would defy the devil himself and the piper met the degected farmer on the road and asked of his degection to which the landholder told his troubles.

Larry said if that was all that ailed him to make his mind easy and he agreed to face the fairy.

The bargain was stuck and Larry went to the hill top of Cnoc se o
Gobhan when the moon was bright and before he had gone he had drunk the barley corn.

He seated himself on a big stone with his back to the wind and began playing his pipes.

The fairys said,
'What! another man upon the fairy ring.', and sent out the queen to make him repent his rashness.

The fairys than flew past him in the shape of midges and a black cat on its claws beteen him and the moon.
This cat than whirled and became a salmon in top boots.
This was of course the fairy queen.

Larry said,
'If you dance I'll pipe for you.', and this he did as well he knew how to do.
But at last the fairy Queen lost patience with him and changed to a soft gentle and fawning calf to throw him off guard but Laurence Hoolihan was not decieved and when she came close he leaped on her back.

From the top of Cnoc se o Gowan to the west you can see the Shannon spreading like the sea to mingle in its gentle course with the broad Atlantic Ocean as it passed through the city of Limerick.

On this night the river was beautiful beneith the brilliant moon from the distant hill.
50 fishermen boats were on the water and the fishermans song rose from the shore.
The fairy calf thus happy to have Larry on her back leaped in one jump over the Shannon .
The river being only 10 miles from the base of the Tipperary mountain and there she flung Laurence on the soft turf on the distant shore of the river Shannon.

'Well done!', cried Larry. 'Not a bad leap for a calf.'

The fairy woman then assumed her own shape and said,
'Laurence, you are bold fellow.', and she offered to take him back to where he had come from.

He than got on her back as she obliged him be becoming a calf, and they bounded back to Cnoc Se Gobhan and there she again resumed her noraml shape.
She commended his courage and said while he kept herd on that hill she and hers would never molest him and offered to him any service that Larry asked of her .
She kept her word and never in Larrys lifetime molested the hill and he in turn never troubled her with requests.

He piped and drank at the farmers expense and stayed in his chimney corner herd shanty overlooking the flock.

At last he died and is buried in a green valley of Tipperary and if the fairys returend to Cnoc se Gobhan after that no one can say.

Judi Donnelly
copyright April 8 2011

sourse: Legends and Tales of Ireland, Thomas Crofton Croker, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co., London
Glascow, Thomas D Morison

Friday, April 8, 2011

Legend of Carne Thierna

The Legend of Carne Thierna

From the town of Fermoy, famous for the excellence of its bottled ail, you may plainly see the mountian of Cairn Thierna.

It is crowned with a great heap of stone, which as the county people remark, never came three without a crooked thought and a cross job.

Strange it is, that any work of the good old times should be considered one of labour; for round towers then sprank up like mushrooms in one night,and people played marbles with pieces of rock that can now no more be moved than the hills themselves.

This great pile on the top of Cairn Thierna was caused by the words of an old woman whose bed still reamins 'labacailly', the hags bed not far from the village of Glanworth.

She was certainly far wiser than any woman, either old or young of my immediate acquantance.

Jove defend me, however, fom making an envious comparison between ladies; but facts are stubborn things and legend will prove my assertion.

O Keefe was lord of Fermoy before the Roches came into that part of the county and he had an only son never was there seen a finer child, his young face filled with innocent joy was enogh to make any heart glad, but his father looked on his smiles with sorrow, for an old hag had fortold, that this boy should be drowned before he grew up to manhood.

Now although the prophescies of Pastorini were a failure, it is no reason why prophescies should altogether be despised.
The art in modern times maybe lost, as well as that of making beer out of the mountain heath, which the Danes did to great perfection,but I take it,the malt of Tom Walker is no bad substitute for the one;
and if evil pophescies were to come to pass, like th old womans in my opinion we are far more comfortable without such knowlege.

Infant heir of proud Fermoy,
Fear not fields of slaughter;
Storms of fire fear not , my boy
But shun its fatal water.

These were the warning words which caused the chief of Fermoy so much unhappiness.
His infant son was carefully prevented all approaches to the river Blackwater, and anxious watch was kept over ever playful movement.

The child grew up in strenght and in beauty and every day became more dear to his father, who, hoping to avert this doom, which , however was inevitable, prepared to built a castle far removed from the dreaded element.

The top of Cairn Thierena was the place chosen, and the lords vassels were assembled and employed in collecting materials for that purpose.

Hither came the fated boy; with delight he viewed the laborious work of raising mighty stones from the base to the summit of the mountain, until the vast heap which now forms its rugged crest was accumulated.

The workmen were about to commence the building and the boy who was considered in safetly while on the mountain, was allowed to rove about at will.

In this case, how true are the words ofthe great dramitist,

Put but a little water in a spoon
and it shall be, as all the ocean,
enough to stifle such a being up.

A vessel which contained a small supply of water brought there for the use of the workmen, attaracted the attention of the child.
He saw with wonder, the glitter of the sunbeams witin it; he approached more near to gaze, when a form resembling his own arose before him.
He gave a cry of joy and astonishment, and drew back, the image drew back also and vanished.

Again he approached; again the form appeared, exprssing in every feature delight corresponding with his own.

Eagar to welcome the young stranger, he bent over the vessel to press his lips, and losing his balance, the fatal prohphecy was accomplished.
The father in dispair abandoned the commenced building and the materail reamin as proof of the folly of attemting to avert the course of FATE.

Thomas Crofton Croker

Presented by
Judi Donnelly
copyright April 6 2011

sourse: Legends and Tales of Ireland , Thomas Crofton Croker,
Simpkins Marshall ,Hamilton, Kent and Co., London
Glascow, Thomas D Morison ,not dated.

The Rock of the Candle

The Rock of the Candle

A few miles west of Limerick stands the once formidable castle of Carrig o Gunnel.
Its riven tower and broken archways reamin in mornful evidence of the seiges sustained by that city.
Time, however, the great soother of all things, has distroyed the painful effect which the view of recent violence produces on the mind.
The ivy creeps around the riven tower, concealing its injuries and upholding it by a tough swathing of stalks.

The archway is again united by the long armed brair which grows across the rent, and the shattered butresses are decorated with wild flowers, which gaily spring from their crevices and broken places.

Boldly situated on the rock, the ruined walls of Carrigogunnell now form only a romantic feature in the peaceful landscape.

Beneith them, on one side, lies the flat marshy ground called Corcas land which borders the noble River Shannon; on the other side is seen the neat parish church of Kilkeedy, with its glebehouse and surroundign improvments; and at a short distance appear the irregular mud cabins of the little village of Ballybrown, with the venerable trees of Tervoo.

On the rock of Carrig o gunnel, before the castle was built, or Brien Boru born to build it, dwelt a hag named Grana, who made desolate the surrounding country.
She was gigantic in size and frightful in appearance.

Her eyebrows grew into each other with a grim curve and beneith their matterd bristles, deep sunk in her head, two small grey eyes darted forth baneful looks of evil.

From her deeply wrinkled forhead issued forth a hooked beak, dividing two shrivelled cheeks.
Her skinny lips curled with a cruel and malignant expression, and her prominent chin was studded with bunches of grisly hair.

Death was her sport.
Like the angler with his rod, the hag Grana would toil and watch nor think it labour, so that the death of a victim required her vigils.

Every evening did she light an enchanted candle upon the rock, and whomever looked upon it died before the next mornings sun arose.
Numberless were the victims over whom Grana rejoiced; one after the other had seen the light and their death was the consequence.
Hence came the county round to be desolate, and Carrigogunnel, the Rock of the Candle by its dredful name.

These were fearful times to live in. But the Finnii of Erinn were the avengers of the oppressed.
Their fame had gone forth to distant shores, and their deeds were sung by a hundred bards.
To them the name of danger was as an invitation to a rich banquet.
The web of enchantment stopped their course as little as the swords of an enemy.

Many a mother of a son, many a wife of a husband, many a sister of a brother had the valour of the Finnian heros bereft.

Dismembered limbs quivered,and heads bounded on the ground before their progress in battle.

They rushed forward with the strength of the furios wind, tearing up the trees of the forest by their roots.
Loud was their war cry as the thunder, raging was their impetuositiy above that of common men and fierce was their anger as they storm waves of the Ocean!

It was the might Finn Himself who lifted up his voice,and commanded the fatal candle of the hag Grana to be extinguised.

'Thine. Regan be the task', he said and to him he gave a cap thrice charmed by the magicain Kono of Lochlainn.

With the stars of the same evening the candle of death burned on the rock, and Regan stood beneith it.

Had he beheld the slightest gimmer of its blaze, he to would have perished, and the hag Grana, with the mornings dawn rejoice over his corpse.

When Regan looked towards the light, the charmed cap fell over his eyes and prevented his seeing.

The rock was steep, but he climbed up its craggy side with such caution and dexterity, that before the hag was aware, the warrior with averted head, had seized the candle, and flung it with prodigious force into river Shannon, the hissing waters of which quenched its light for ever!

Than flew the charmed cap from the eyesmof Regan,and he beheld the enraged hag, with outstreched arms, prepared to seize and whirl him after her candle.
Regan instantly bounded westward from the rock just two miles, with a wild and wondererous spring.
Grana looked for a moment at the leap,and than tearing up a hugh fragment of the rock, flung it after Reagan with such tremendous force, that her crooked hands trembled and her broad chest heaved with heavy puffs, like a smiths laboring bellows from the exertion.

The ponderus stone fell harmless to the ground, for the leap of Regan far exceeded the strength of the furious hag.
In triumph he returned to Finn;
the Hero valiant, renenowed and learned;
white tooth'd, graceful, magnanimous and active.

The hag Grana was never heard of more; but the stone reamins, and deeply imprinted in it , is still to be seen the mark of the hags fingers.

That stone is far taller than the tallest man,and the power of forty men would fail to move it from the spot where it fell.

The grass may wither around it, the spade and plough distroy dull heaps of earth,the walls of castles fall and perish, but the fame the Finnii of Erin endures with the rocks themselves.

And Clough a Regaun is the monument fitting to preserve the memory of the deed!

from Thomas Crofton Crokers Fairy Legends of the South of Ireland.

The legend depicts the great forces of nature in the old hag Grana such as are exibited in a volcano which springs forth from an ancient mountain.
The value of its story is that man apparently was there before the volcanic era.
The natives of many lands beside Ireland claiming that they have always been there and are decendants of the gods.

These folk tales were preserved orally in song and in poetic vecse and handed down century by century from time immemorial.

They are thus stories of the fairys and stories of creation and stories of the ability of particular men, the Fian, to cope with these natural forces and occations by not only feats of herosim, but feats of magic and thus the gunnnel [coinneal in the irish] preserved in the story of the rocks which are always part of and prevelent in Irish creation myth.
The rock is the foundation of remembrance and is thus placed over the dead to remember their location.

When these rocks are removed by the modern world and developers build dwellings and offices over them the history is smothered and as the legend advises that the Finn endure like the rocks themselves regardless of the grass or the spade or the plough or the castle crumbling the Clough a Regan reamins.

* the word 'gunnell' maybe based on old French rather than English as I dont see how they got a gu out of coin.
gu does come up in the scottish gaelic
gu meaning to or that is.
there is no gun or neal or nell.

The name Chandler converts back to candler or candle but to place the h it would be ciandler.
The song is the can and the d'le is the singer and a sea chant.

The Irish dictionary of today defines gun as just that the gun, and the Fian are assocate with the battle as is the carrig o gunnel[rock of the candle of the gun.

It is interesting to note the bulding of the castle itself in ruins in 1823 or so, was built by the prolific Brain boru in the early 1000 AD period.

The word clough does not appear in the Irish indicating the change of text writing of the Irish during the period of church rule.
there is a clo maning form and there is a clu meaning reputation and the word cloch appears as a stone or the word cloigh meaning to overcome or adhear.

Problay the Clough o Regaun simply means the stone of Regaun [Regean].

gaun is probaly the prononciation writing of the dipthone 'ea' from gean which means love or affection and re is moon therefore regaun would be the pronciation of the two words-- re, moon and gean, love love of the moon stone.
of the moon love would indicate the Clough a Regaun basically.
This might incorporate also the element ath laun the old Irish name for Limerick
the ath being the crossing of the luan the moon light.

The Irish of today incorporated many different languages, Latin ,French Greek, English and its own pronuciation of the Gaelic.

tThe Gaelteach of todays western speech is basically Highland Gaelic from the Scots highlands .
The relatives of the Erinn speech.
They were from Erinn .

presnted by
Judi Donnelly
copyright April 6 2011

Sourse: Legends and Tales of Ireland, Thomas Crofton Croker , Simkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co., London
Glascow, Thomas D Morison, undated

Tuesday, April 5, 2011




In old time long ago a King of Erinn went out on a walk with his
Queen along the strand to look at the waves and rocks.
At this time they spyed a boat sailing in from the old sea [thelarge distant sea the Atlantic] .

When it came ashore no one was on it but an old grey hair.

'Its a wonder to me', says the sailor,'that you never thought to go out on the water for amusement or pleasure.

'How could I go', says the king, 'when I have neither ship nor boat.'

'Walk into my boat', says the old man and they sailed about in the rig not far from the land until the old man drew the boat in and asked the king,
'Will you come out?'

The king started to come out but the old sailor said,
'Its a wonder to me that a king should come out before the Queen as she might fall between the boat and the rock', and so the Queen disembarked first.

As soon as she was on the rock the old man put his foot to the stern of the boat and gave it a shove that sent it out 9 leagues, 9 waves into the sea and that adrift boat with the king of Erinn finally came to Lonsome Island [solitary island ,Aonarach Inis].

He anchored his craft and went waliking till he came to a castle in the middle of the island.
The most beautiful Queen of the palace made a dinner and they ate and drank at the one table.

She made his breakfst next morning and walked to the strand but the boat was gone.

The king of Erinn remained there with the Queen of Inis Aonarach for a year and a day,and during this time she had a son.

When the babe was 3 months old the Queen said the King could go home if he chose.
Before he left his new love and the new young child a token of recognition was made in case he would see the child again and that being he cut of the little toe of the infants right foot as a permanent mark.

A beautiful ship was waiting for him and sailed under fair wind and good wishes till it came to Erinn and the Kings own harbor.

While the king has been away the news had gone out to the world that he was lost and finaly came to the Geal Ri Thuais,White King of Thuais the North [viking] who saw the oportunity to collect a fleet and take the land of Erinn for his own use.

This was at the time the Queen of Aonarach Inis' son was 7 years old and his mother had been trainign him and he was of great skill.

When the Geal Ri of the north was ready he sent a challenge to the king of Erinn to fight or pay tribute without any trouble.
The Erinn king said he would fight and die before he would lie under tribute to any man.

His own natural 3 sons by the Queen of Erinn went off to hide and in Lonsome Island the Queen told her young child Mianach Or that there was trouble on the childs father the king of Erinn.

She told the boy of the great fleet of the White king and how his father, the ERinn king, would have to go out unassisted by anyone to battle the invader and told the boy he must go and assist his father.

'Has he not 3 sons older than I?' asked Wishing Gold?

Wishing Gold made ready next day and hurried off across the sea to Erin on his steed.

The king of Erinn,as he prepared to go out to battle with his sword, saw the horseman coming across the waves and said.

'There are many enough against me. I will see if this one is also.'

Then the horseman came to the field the Geal Ri and made short work of these men like a hawk through a flock of small birds.

He slaughtered them all and spared no one but the White King, the
Geal Ri whom he led to his father.

'Are we to kill this man or let him lie under tribute forever?'

The king of Erinn said if he was willing to be under tribute he would not take his head without reason and the boy than showed the king his missing right toe and the king remembered that he had a son like him.

The old Queen of Erinn liked Mianach Or and would not let him out of her sight.
But the Queen was duplicitious and went to a Druid and asked him under pain of death how to put an end to Mianachu Or.

She was jelous that he and not her own sons would have th kingship of Erinn .
The Druid told her to take Mianachu Or to the wonderful banks and that he could leap over and spring back as her own sons did all the time and he will try this himself and leap to the bottom.

When he tried this and began to spring back up the wicked Queen pushed him and he fell into the sea.

He was dashed by the waves until he was thrown on an island.
Where he found a house in the middle of it and therin a white trout [breac ban ] on a spit.
He wanted to eat the trout but did not as it was not his and when he went back out of the house coming towards him was a gaint with 5 heads and 5 necks and this giant laughed [Arracht Guare].

An ugly beast you are said Mianach Or,

'Why are you laughing?'

'Cen fath ta tu gairiu?

The giant replied he was laughing as he was glad to get Mianach Or to eat that day.

But Mianach Or fought the 5 headed giant and cut off all 5 of the heads and went between the heads and the body of the giant that they could not be reattached.

He than went to the house to eat Breac Ban but he thought to look out again before he could consume the fish and saw another 5 headed gaint coming.
They had combat but Mianach Or was stronger than the giant and soon cut of the 5 heads with his sword and sprang between them to keep them from reattaching to the body.

At last Mianach Or sat down and ate the trout and just as he finished a 3rd giant came and he fought this one as well and soon cut of the 5 heads.
He now had 15 heads and 3 bodys before him and after that he thought that they must have mother nearby so he went out and a dreadful old hag was coming.

He fought her for 3 days and 3 nights and she was winning although no harm was coming to her.

He thought he was to die but just then his own mothers voice came to him.
She chastised him for fighting the old woamn and said she would not help him but as long as the old hag had a long net of hair on her she could not be harmed.

At this advise Wishing Gold put his sword to the hairnet and cut it to the top of her head.
And that made her weak and he killed her.

He than went home to his own mother on the isle in the western sea.

The reports went out over the land that Mian Or had been lost at sea
and the Geal Ri of the North said .
Now it is my time', and thus he set out to do battle with the king of Erinn and release himself from tribute.

The spotted [Goirinte] king joined him and this made a great fleet to go against Erinn.

The Goirinte king sent a message to the king of Erinn to give up his tribute from the king of the north, the Geal Ri or fight for his kingdom.
The king of Erinn replied he will fight to the death before he would give up his own or go under tribute to any man.

Next day the battle was held and the king of Erinns 3 sons could not be found.

'very comfortable are we this night', said the Queen of Inis Aonarach 'but it is not the same with your father in Erinn.'

He has great trouble on him.' And she told him that the spotted king and the White King had gone with great fleets to Erinn as they thought Mianach Or had been thrown down and lost at sea.

'Sure my father has 3 sons older than I', said Wishing Gold but the Queen of Aonarach Inis said she had caused all his trouble when she had broguht him to her island so he must help him.

'you know how they treated me before when I was in Erinn', and his mother gave hima belt around his body that would tighten and give him warning if any man or woman tried to harm him.

Next morning as the king of Erinn went with his sword to face his enemys, he saw a horsemen riding a steed on the sea.

when the horseman came he attacked the 2 armys and went through them like a hawk through small birds.

He made a heap of their heads, a heap of their bodies, and heap of their weapens until all were killed but 2 kings.
These the took to his father and asked,

'Am I to kill these men or put them under tribute?'

The king of Erinn said to double the trubute on the White king and a single tribute on the Spotted king and each agreed to pay with no trouble and went to their own place, glad to escape.

Mext day Mianach Or and his father had a great hunt and the Queen went again to the old Druid to be told how to kill Mianach Or.
The Druid told her to kill a cock. Take its blood in a bottle to bed with her.
say that she would soon die and put some blood in your mouth and spit it out and send for the king to come.

Send not one horseman but one after another.

This she did and when the king came to ask what was on her, she told him she could not live unelss he got a cure for her.
To this she told him she neeeded a bottle of water from the well of the castle of the Queen of the Roth Corraigeniu [ the moving wheel].
in the east of the world and that Mianach Or would bring it.

The king would tell her that cure you will never get and he refused to send Wishing Gold telling her she had 3 sons of her own she could send.

These 3 made ready to go to the eastern world and Mianach Or would not be left behind.
So the 4 of them went to find the Queen of the Moving Wheel ,Roth Corraigeniu].

After a long time they came to a house .
The lady of the house gave great welcome to Mianachu Or and she brought him food and drink.
Her father abed called to find out who the young amn was and was told it was his nefew the son of his sister the Queen of Lonsome island and the king of Erinn.
Mianach Or took his chair to the old mans bed and the old man asked him where he was going and what brought him this way to his house.

When Mianach Or told the search for the water the old man said it could not be gotten and to go back.

But Mianachu said he would get the water if he lost his life and never went back to Erinn.

When the older brother heard of the great danger before him he dropped dead and his body was put in a box of green leaves to keep it fresh.

The 3 brothers now traveled on to a distant house and the lady of the house again welcomed Mianach Or by the hand and made supper and an old man abed called out,
'How is it daughter that you have such a welcome for this man?'

He is the son of your sister and the king of Erinn and has news of your brother and then Or took his chair to the old mans bed.

'Where are you going asked the old man and Mianachu Or told him the whole story.

The old man said kings and sons of kings over half the earth had gone for the water but none ever returned and advised them to go home.
When the second son of the Queen of Erinn hear do the danger he dropped dead.
His body also was packed in green leaves to preserve it till Mianach Or could get the waters of life.

Next morning away went the 2 reamining princes till they came at night fall to a great house and a beautiful woman who welcomed Mianach Or greatly.

The old man explained to Mianachu Or all the dangers that were before them at the castle of the Roth Corraigeniu, of the 3 bridges guarded by 3 dogs with their mouths open to swallow the whole world.

He told how the Queen only slept once every 7 years for a day and a year and at that time she raised her castle to the sky.

All the servants she had slept with open eyes.

He told of the wall between the servants and the spearmen ond the well and 4 cats on each of the wall corners with a poison tail and poison teeth and to get to the water you needed to pass the cats.

He told Mianachu Or how to pick the 3 apples in the garden of the well and to throw the largest one into the sky to hit the castle and bring it 1/3 of the way back to earth.

With the second apple another 1/3 and with the smallest apple the rest of the way to earth.
He told Wishingt Gold to catch each apple as it retured to earth and put it in his pocket.
Then he had to leap and catch the wheel and keep it steady till the castle is settled.
Than Mianach Or was told to go to the kitchen door where was a pile of keys and one of these keys, a key to the hall door which it may take a day and a year to find.

When the 3rd son of Erinns Queen heard all this he dropped dead and Mianach or was all alone.

Next morning Mianchu Or washed his face and hands and traveled to the first bridge.
The dog was there and ready to spring.
He crossed the bridge because the dog was asleep and the 2nd and 3rd bridge the same way.
Than he bounded over the wall of the garden.

Watching the cats carefully he found they too were asleep, filled his 3 bottles, went to the middle of the garden took the 3 apples struck the castle in the sky with the largest and then threw up the second apple and the castle came down more and the 3rd apple and the castle came to the earth.

He grabbed the wheel and kept it still till the castle was firmly settled.

Than he went and got the pile of keys and he picked out the biggest key and tried it for the hall and the door opened.

He opened all the doors till he came to the room where the Queen was asleep.
He left her a note saying the son of the king of Erinn had visited her and left it in in her bossom.

He than locked all the castle doors behind him as he came out and the small apple and the castle rose some more into the air.

When he threw the last large apple, the castle went of into the clouds.
He caught all the apples and put them back on the tree in the center of the garden,
took his water bottles sailed over the wall ,crossd the 3 bridges came to his uncle, rubbeld the magic water on him and he became a young lad and the youngest son of the king of Erinn who came back to life.

He did the same at his second uncle's house and brought back the life of the king of Erinns second son and again at the 3rd uncle and the king of Erinns eldest son.

The 3 brothers conspired to kill Mianach Or and take the water but the magic belt gave him warning and tightened.

Wishing Gold made a bargain with these 3 and gave them the water and sent them home to Erinn going his own road to his mother at Inis Aonarach.

When they arrived without Mianachu Or the king of Errin asked for him and they lied and said Mianach Or had died and was no good.
That is not true said the king of Erinn.

When their mother the Queen was told that Mianachu Or was dead she did not need the water and sprang out of bed as good as new.

After a year and a day Mianachu Or's mother advised him he needed to go again to Erinn.

He said he would not go to Erinn he had his fill of that country.

But his mother said he must go as when the Queen of Roth Corraigeniu awoke there was with her a child of 3 months.

And, when she sprang from her bed the note Mianachu had written her fell and she was angry and thus went to Mianach Or's fathers castle king of Erinn to distroy the kingdom and behead the son of Erinn Himself.

These challenges she gave to all the sons of Erinn not knowing which one of the 4 entered her castle while she was sleeping and she wanted to distroy the 3 brothers and their father and the kindgdom unless Mainachu Or came before her.

His mother advised him she was a great champion and to go before her battle tent early in the morning before she rises and strike the first blow on the pole of combat before her tent and than to defend himself againt her 1st and 2nd blow and his mother would save him from the 3rd blow.

Next mornign Mianachu or went to Erinn with his best weopons and struck the first blow before the Queen of Roth Corraigenui's tent.

'Who is this', she cried 'who dared to strike a blow before my tent?'
'Your master', replied Mianach Or.

she, the queen of the Moving Wheel rose up in the air and came down on Mianachu Or who defended himself from his head to his soles and saved himself from the first blow.

She rose again and again Mianachu defended himself from her second blow.
She respected him than as a champion but went to deal him the 3rd blow and finish him.

'Wishing Gold!', cried out the Queen of Inis Aonarach,
'I would not spare the motherr of my child if the mother of my child wound not spare me.'

The Queen of the Roth Corraigenui questioned this diagnosis and revelation saying,

'How can Wishing Gold be the father of my child?'

'The paper says the son of the king of Erinn is the perpetrator and for him she had been saving herself.

The Queen of Londsome Island than tells her that Mianachu Or is the son of the king of Erinn and that is her fault as she had sent him wondering to her island where she was watching for him and she desired to have the good blood of the king of Erinn as being the ony good blood.

The Queen of Moving Wheel thus forgave Mianachu Or, embrassed him and all went of to the castle of Moving Wheel where the couple were married .

The queen of Erinn, wife of the king of Erinn, was given a gift of a ring and she put it on her finger but the ring began to tighten.
She asked Mianachu Or to take off the ring but it wouldnt come off.

Mianachu Or told her the ring would take off her finger and her head uneless she told the truth about who was the father of her oldest son.
She said the byy belonged to the king of Erinn but Wishing Gold said
there was not drop of the kings blood in his body.

He demanded the truth or he would not remove the crushing ring.

She cried, out of her fear of the loss of status, as she and the king had no children, she obliged the kings pig sticker and Wishing Gold said there was little good in the kings pig sticker.

He than demanded of the Queen of Erinn to know who was the father of her second son.
She explained the kings gardner was the father.

'I believe that.', said Mianachu Or, 'He is not much better than the other.'

He demaned to know the father of the 3rd son and youngest son.
The kings driver exclamed the Queen of Erinn.

When the king of Erinn heard the confessions of his wife, he was very angry and wanted to burn all three to ashes.
But Mianachu Or stopped him and told him to leave them.

The king of Erinn than married the Queen of Lonsome island and they went to live at her castle on Inis Aonarach.

Mianachu Or, with his Queen Roth Corraigeniu went to Moving Wheel kindgdom and lived there.

Thus were left in Erinn the son of the pig sticker, the son of the gardner and the son of the driver.

The peasant society of today with no king and no champion.

presented from
Classic Celtic Fairy Tales, John Matthews,

The classic story of a wonder tale where a hero is born from a contrived meeting of a mortal and a faery woman.

Battles with giants, titatic forces, and hag mothers and a recognition finaly, of the Hero child as king of Erinn although he does not live there with his mortal subjects.

The consept of hair holding power over a being is expressed in the hag mothers indistructablity and also in Sampson and Delila from the Jewish sagas.

Hair does present, with teeth, a genetic component that can be scientificly if miraculously related to DNA, inspiring the traditional custom to cut and preserve a lock of hair from a young child and also not to cut the hair of a young child.

The Hero himself is a prodegy of his assistance from his old uncles.
The three brothers of the fairy Queen of Lonsome Island.

Each one older and weaker than the other but still able to teach and address the young golden Heros wish to find and take hold of the waters of life.

The grail of the golden cup.

The castle in the air also depict a continious pattern of the dwelling, in the giants stories as well as in the Arthurian 4 cornered castle.
The french style of the 9th centurty long before the Norman castle came to Erinn and the Germanic style of Dui Crone, the Crown.

Stories where the Hero enters revolving castles and finds a woman or a revolving wheel which turns the dark into light [the sun] and back as the wheel turns.

Some of the pre Gallileo consept of the earth being the center and the sun being the inner part of the wheel as medieval man tried to come to terms with universal events and forces.

An early application of astronomy and physics from the pasture lands of Earth.
The Good Shepard.

The story deal with the secret and subtile movements of procreation and sex as well as a young mans dependence and learning from his mother more than the father who is often unknow to him except in time of great need.

The mother is the controlling force of this life and survival.
Owning the castle, instructing the son, holding magical powers and fearful rages.

A matralinial society where only a King and a Hero can intentionally master a woman except the reproduction sex, where the faery power can be intercepted by common mortal working men such as are repesented by the underlings; the swineheard, the gardner and the transport workers.

The faery woman and the mortal women knowing who they really are.

Judi Donnelly
copyright 3 April 2011

sourse: Classic Celtic Fairy Tales, John Matthews , Blandford Books, 1997