Tuesday, May 17, 2011

IMMIGRATION

IMMIGRATION

I got out the story of my life a few days ago better known after all these years as Ellis Island by the History Channel.
Immigration.
And it revealed a lot of Eliz P's secret fears over the years.

When the famine Irish came there were no restrictions on the 4 1/2 million that passed into the New World if they made the passage alive were 'HOme Free'.

The immigration law was never passed until 1882 and before that the states only processed anyone that came into their state.
But the ports of landing were usually Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Galveston, New Orleans for the US and Halifax/St Johns for Canada.

In the 1600s the colony here usually emigrated to by the family itself, or an individual adventurer and mostly ,indentured servants who were contracted to the ship captain for usually 4 years of their labor to pay for the passage over the Ocean.

About 1 million 200 thousand came in that century from Scotland, Germany and Ireland along with an uncounted number of slaves from Africa.

By 1810 the federal goverenment had purchased the old civil war ammuniton dump Castle Clinton from New York State and this was used as a dropping post for imigrants coming into NY harbor.
The island itself was only 3 acres.

About 1880 the steamship replaced the old stench ridden sailing ships.
The passagee now took 8-14 days as opposed to the old sailing vessels month or two.

In 1880 the federal government passed the Immigration Act
and began the constuction of a new wooden building on the Castle Garden site.

The Ellis Island Processing Center opened on January 1, 1892.

The Center opened by prossessing and Irish lass, Annie Moore, followed by some 12 million over its lifetime of emigrants from all over Europe and West Asia.

English, Irish, Polish, Sweds, Austrians, Turk, Russian, Germans, Hebrews .

The Federal 1882 law provided a count of all the emigrants, a medical exam and interagation.
Excluded from admittance were criminals with a prison record, mental defects, deseased persons and radicals who the Americans already in the county considered dangerous.

By 1897, just 5 years after Ellis was opened and built of Georgian pine, it was burned to the ground but the federal governement immediately rebuilt it with fireproof materials at a cost of 1.5 million and the processing center reopened on 17 December, 1900.

The major medical exam was conducted to deport any person with lice, silly minded, glacoma, retardation ,contageous desease, venereal deseases, etc. and these special cases removed from the general Que, marked with blue chalk to be sent back.

Oftimes a family of parents and children were separated by such processing.
The steamship lines were required to prescreen passengers coming into these new world ports as fit in mind and body, not likely to become a public charge and these prescreening details put on the ships manfest for each passenger.

All were de loused and and all baggage and possessions inspected and recorded on the ships manifest list before they embarked on the steam ship coming to the New World.

The ship conditions in economy steerage were atrocious. No sleeping or eating facilites, no sanitation or bath compound, and the crowding was similar to that of cattle or birds being transported.

These tests were repeated at Ellis Island Processing Center and if one of them was not met the person was marked for return.

Between 1822-1924 71% of immigrants coming to the US came through this Ellis Island at a rate of some 5000 people a day.

The emigrants were asked many questions under the bureaurocratic screening process.
Many of them the same questions they had been asked in the prescreening in the old country.
Name, Birth date, place of origin, how much money did they have, moral status,their prison and employment records.

If the prospective claimed he has a job waiting for him in America he was rejected and sent back as an undesirable for taking away a job from an American.
He had to prove he would not become public charge, LPC.

The steerage passengers were held on board ship till there was room at the island to process them. Often days or weeks.

They were cargo while the first class and second class passengers were processed summarily on board; verifying the questions already on their ship manifest.

Oftimes a child disappeared from steerage and was processed with the first or second class as a part of their party and a child of so and so,While the rest of the family was put through the processing center.

Sometimes a child was rejected with scarlett fever or a cough or breathing problem and taken from the family group, who could not speak English, and were not told why. Marked to be deported.

A child under 11 was not allowed to be sent back without a guardian or a family member as someone had to go with them.
This disrupted families totaly.

But if they got through the process and were released to go downstairs to the golden door exit, they were treated to a commissary where you could buy food ,a railroad ticket office, a telegraph office, an exchange, and what was called the 'kissing post' where they were ferried to the mainland and allowed to survive as best they could, if they could.

By this time several societys of ethnic groups were in operation to help the immigrants get through the process on the island, fill out the necessary paper work ,find them jobs, and provide them with shelter and food.
They also gave free postage so the emigants could write home to their villages to allow them to know they had arrived safely.
No telephone or internet services and the telegrams were expensive.

Most of the peasant population imigrants coming fora better life were rural and had never been out of their native villages before or seen money or spoken any language except that they had at their mothers knee .
Nor coud they read and write.

They had few if any skills, and had been totally uprooted from their village life and they were here to work.

The US at that era also had competition for worker imigrants from Canada, Australia, Brazil and South Africa.

But in 1894 the Immigration Resisntance League, headed by Henry Cabot Lodge of Boston worked to restrict the suspect and poor.

When the emigrant applicant had completed their 5 hour screening wait they were offered donuts and milk.
A meal was served them by the steamship lines which was usually tasty and wholesome but ethnic foods were not served and the north europeans refused to eat Italian spigettii and the Jews would eat nothing because it was not 'kosher'.

Women alone were not allowed to continue on with out an escort; a brother, a husband, a sponsor.
They were particularly scrutenized for moral uprighness as prostitition, white slavery, or public charge potentials were suspected of them.

In 1910 quota laws were established allowing 3% of the total population of the country from which they were coming.

In 1917 the new quota laws were enforced in place after the first world war ended.
President Wilson had issued a Presidental Order detaining any illegals from being sent home during the duration of the hostilites, turning the processing center into a detention camp.

A read and write law was applied.

The emigrant was to be literate in the native language of the country he came from.

In 1919, 26,000 were processesd when the detention order was lifted. In 1920, 225,000 came in.
In 1921 560 thousand.

Under the Quota laws and other older prossesssing requirments.
This remined the major appliction till 1924 when the golden door was replaced with the oveseas Consulate and the Visa system.
A visa was obtained in his home country from the US or other Consulate before he embarked.
This allowed him to enter with summary examination and if he were in good health on arrival and not a criminal, an anarchist or a rebel, had money, he was not sent back as the Visa had already cleared him for entry.

When the Quota system was in place boatloads crammed the harbor from various countries and if the quota for that particular county had been filled they were all sent back. The entire boatload returned at expense to the shipping company.

In 1928 25,000 was the quota allotment for the Irish Free State born in 1920 after a civil war in Ireland and the establishment of peace treaty between the rebel rebublician forces and the government of Great Britain.

During its hayday from 1900-1924 programs were established for the holdees;
a new mom program for children born on the island who were automatically US citizens
Schools
sewing classes
calasthenics
a libray
a play ground
sunday concerts in native music

Ball playing was taught to the emmigtants. The old country folk never had balls.

The Consolate system worked much better than the processing center and is still in use today and has been adopted by much of the worlds countries to facilatate tourism and immigration.
The right of return was established to allow persons not able to stay in the new world for one reason or another, to return to their native land without exclusions.

In 1911 'Kosher' food was introduced and the Jew was finaly allowed to eat.
The island now sported a hospital building for sick person who could be treated and recovered and hence approved and a dormitory housing 2000 people in sleepign quarters since 1910.

By 1930 and the depression, and worry over criminal elements was stong and the detention center idea was revived using the prossessing center which was essentualy empty durign the 30s.
No one came.

When war broke out in Europe in 1939/40 the regulations were rigid and tightend and the island became a virtual jail for the duration.
Foriegners were considered spys. Particulary women.

By 1945 Ellis was obsolete and on November 12, 1945 the Center was closed.

The government tried to sell the island but had no takers.
The 35 buildings, 2 water towers and a ferry were of no value.

The buildings fell into disrepair and the ghoasts of old poverty stricken people roamed the island.

In 1965 President Lyndon Johnson toured the island and ordered its resotartion making it a part of the National Parks, Statue of Liberty National Park.
The Staute standing in the harbor was the first site of the emigrant ships and most of them retained a deep attachment to the lady in the harbor for their remaining lives and passed this reverence of what America stood for on to their children.
A Sunday outing for an imigrant still not proficient in English, and stil decked in visable signs of old country wear, would stand for hours gazing out into the harbor from the Bowrey rails along the East River shore.

156 million in private donations were collected to restore and renovate the collapsing facilites and in 1990 the Island buildings was reopened as a museum.

A wall of Honor has been constucted around the facility for names of processed and for a fee, names can be added to the wall by the decendants of these ancestors who made the treck over the great wide water. Waited patiently for processing. Endured the separation of his or her family uprooting. Struggled to become American and to survive and to prosper and to find freedom and independence, security and prosperity.

Many followed a path of 100 % ending of the past cutting all ties to the old county.
Proud to be American to forget the world and its troubles and so they did.
Their children and grandchildren anglosized.
The old language forgotten.The old religion lost. The old song and dance revampted to American style and the old village forgotten.

The Yank was born and knew not who he was or why he was only that he was an American.
Maybe a German or Irish, Polish or Sweedish, English or Spainish and the Yank went home in 1940-45.
Leaving his unidentified crossbred lines on the fields of Normandy and Flanders.
On the bottom of the ocean or the Siegrfried line and the Builge. In the deserts of north Africa and the secret gardens of Italy or sometimes at his own Arlington National Cemetary.

The serf freed. The family discarded. The past forgotten. The future unsounded.

In a personal sense the History proved an awakinig to certain reasons for my own mothers fears of emagration as she arrived at age 10. Was sent off from war torn north Ireland with an older sister Mary under the sponsorship of an Uncle and Aunt.

When she was near arriving in harbor she was brought up from economy class, dressed by her aunt in an Amercian outfit.
Told at all costs not to open her mouth [she had a brogue], and inspected with her aunt on board as part of the aunts family.
Her child or grandchild and waltzed into the US with the upper class passengers,
An illegal emigrant.
She had not to pass through Ellis at all. By then a sea of corruption and incompetence.

She was put to work in her aunts house and told she was born in 1910 and was 12 years old.
She as actually born in 1911 and 10 years old as she came in May and was born in November.

She ,like almost all the imigrants had no birth record.

If she had been rejected to be sent back because of age or other impediment, her sister Mary now 16 and old enough to work would have been required to go with her as guardian.

This slipping by immingration in 1922 lead to a life long fear in my mother of being found out and deported.

She was not going to become LPC and never applied for any welfare benefit or licence.
She was ever able to remember her disappared status to first or second class and her aunt and uncles deception.

She had the same name as he was her fathers brother and so she remained all her life never marrying in fear of Immigation Acts reguarding her status.

Her sister Mary apparenly got in but it is today still not known if she passed through Ellis Island or if she had a sponsor who picked her up.
Afterall she was 16. Eligible for moral scrutiny and a sponsor.

The two girls were split up and hardly knew each othr after that arrival.
Neither were content in their work assignments and in due time Mary escaped her clannish Irish household on long Island, went to NY city and was able to complete a marriage with a handsome fellow of Norman French decent.
she had 4 children and died in Amerian in an unhappy state of mind.

In 1927 after the Visa application of 1924 and the establishment of overseas Consolates, 2 of the brothers of this family of 10 siblings emigrated to NYC not needing to pass the island center having completed the processing in the British UK and holding British passports.

They both became citizens and held businesses in NYC and cross married.
One a German girl and the other a Polish.

In the depression era of the 30s another sister of the 10 came. Anne, who alledgedly had a husband in Boston or came to be married.
Again a ruse of only as she had an escort or needed to have one in the family who came and picked her up.
No one knew if she entered at Boston or NY.

Later she had a son of a man who was Cuban and this one ,a married man whose wife eventually showed up.
The city of NY raised her child as she had ideas to go back to Great Britan with this infant born in America.

Of these siblings coming to the land of freedom and justice, no closeness was retained, no records found ,no histoy told.
They lived as strangers to each other.
All were told they were British not Irish.

Imigration required reading and writing a native langauge and none living in north Ireland spoke or were ever taught Irish gaelic.
Plus a Quota for the Irish Free State was much lower than that for UK the empire, and it is still an empire ,financial of not landed.

Of the 10 children of this small farm family on only 10 acres in Tyrone only 3 remained.

1 girl and 2 boys. The youngest getting the farm.

An older boy, Pat, came.
He got on a boat in the 20s. Got work with the Mob runng boot liquour. Got into trouble by sifening off either boose or profit.
Was told he was to be hit for it. Went down to the dock. Got on a boat to Ireland and died in the garden eating garlic so the story was told, but left two illigitimate children in the US. Children of his grilfriend.
He was more American than he knew apparently.

This Pat also it is told in Ireland, actually was picked up in NY spent some time in a mental area. Probaly at Belview or on Ellis island. Was deported to North Ireland where his mother was distrought at his craziness and he was kept in a mental home in the UK where he died.
Either way the wild rebellious boy didnt make it.

The youngest girl, born in 1919, the modern era, married ,had 7 children and because of the same old unemployment problem of 1910 and beyond, emigrtated with her husband and 7 children and Herself to Australia where in they remain this day successfull and secure if not fairly prosperous.

Of my own mother, she lived her whole adult life in the shadow of her arrival by deceptive practice.
Always in fear of being picked up by Immigration.

She never applied for any public benifit not to become an LPC.
She never obtained a job benefit and always lurking on the shaddy side of employment private nursing circuit.

She never applied for ration stamps or public housing but was 'helped' by lesser gang types.
She was taken care of.

She never discussed her family or her home and was used all her life in the US from 1922 till she died by violence in 1974 .
52 years in the shadow of the gun.

No one mourned the passing of this Irish girl with a brouge but her grandchildren.
No one sent remorse or flowers.

The church she deserted buried her in a grave belonging to the daugther of the aunt who had told her, never open your mouth, and kept her on tight rein working for no wages till she was 18 when the uncle threatened to send her back.

She had not been sent back. She had not become a public charge .If she had become a white slave she kept her silence and no one knew of it.
She slipped between 3 governments and many not to straight boyfriends but never decended to a state of detachment until she was secure. Then she was unable to handle it all .

She never went back to north Ireland.
Why?
For fear of her family, for dislike of the poverty and volite politics of the region.
Not as much as fear that if she left American shores she would not be let back in.

She could not apply for a passport. She was not a citizen.
She could not go home again and this 6th child slipped through the cracks of both poverty and prosperity and the 20th centuries greatest war and the transition from the cart and the walk and the steamship to the airoplane vs the fairy bomb.

Her daugher however managed to defy the emigrant inspection in having prison record--expunged, becoming a public charge, not fit mentally or physically for admittance and holding a birth certificate with a false father on it and a US and an Irish passport as well as being refugee for Canada immigaration. As well as two marriage and divorce certificates

It is I would have been sent back. Never made it out of the sheep shed.
But much of what I belive and feel by osmosis I found in this film of Ellis.
The stuggle to survive of the poverty stricken, helpless and ignorant of the world.

Those helpless masses yearning to breath free.


Judi Donnelly
copyright May 9, 2011


sourse: Ellis Island, History Channel.com, A&E TV Network ,Greystone Communications, 1997


MY GREEN VALLEYS


Oh, the seagulls are callin' and the wind is in the sails,
And she's fast moving out to the sea
On a ship bound for St Johns three thousand miles away,
A human cargo my comrades and me.

It hurts me to think of the things I left behind,
Though the famine has blackeded the land,
And to look now for something that I may never find,
Its a problem thats now close at hand.

There's a fever a ragin' and the winds have died away,
And our jounrey may no longer be,
Though the plague is a shadow that lingers night and day,
Warmer thought of green valleys I see.

chorus

Fair thee well green valleys. God keep you the same,
If only in my mind you'll be,
I'm sailing dark waters for far Americay
And never more my green valleys to see.

This quickesential song, written by the Irish holds the feeling of the Immigrant for all and with this note,

Criochnaich do deirenach post!
The end for the Last Post!

of this blog of review and may I live long enough to begin another in future.

Judi Donnelly

sourse: 50 Complete Rebel Songs,Fighing Men of CrossMaglen,, MVD Ltd., Newry, Down, Ireland, Arran Records, 2005

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

IMMIGRATION

IMMIGRATION

I got out the story of my life a few days ago better known after all these years as Ellis Island by the History Channel.
Immigration.
And it revealed a lot of Eliz P's secret fears over the years.

When the famine Irish came there were no restrictions on the 4 1/2 million that passed into the New World if they made the passage alive were 'HOme Free'.

The immigration law was never passed until 1882 and before that the states only processed anyone that came into their state.
But the ports of landing were usually Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Galveston, New Orleans for the US and Halifax/St Johns for Canada.

In the 1600s the colony here usually emigrated to by the family itself, or an individual adventurer and mostly ,indentured servants who were contracted to the ship captain for usually 4 years of their labor to pay for the passage over the Ocean.

About 1 million 200 thousand came in that century from Scotland, Germany and Ireland along with an uncounted number of slaves from Africa.

By 1810 the federal goverenment had purchased the old civil war ammuniton dump Castle Clinton from New York State and this was used as a dropping post for imigrants coming into NY harbor.
The island itself was only 3 acres.

About 1880 the steamship replaced the old stench ridden sailing ships.
The passagee now took 8-14 days as opposed to the old sailing vessels month or two.

In 1880 the federal government passed the Immigration Act
and began the constuction of a new wooden building on the Castle Garden site.

The Ellis Island Processing Center opened on January 1, 1892.

The Center opened by prossessing and Irish lass, Annie Moore, followed by some 12 million over its lifetime of emigrants from all over Europe and West Asia.

English, Irish, Polish, Sweds, Austrians, Turk, Russian, Germans, Hebrews .

The Federal 1882 law provided a count of all the emigrants, a medical exam and interagation.
Excluded from admittance were criminals with a prison record, mental defects, deseased persons and radicals who the Americans already in the county considered dangerous.

By 1897, just 5 years after Ellis was opened and built of Georgian pine, it was burned to the ground but the federal governement immediately rebuilt it with fireproof materials at a cost of 1.5 million and the processing center reopened on 17 December, 1900.

The major medical exam was conducted to deport any person with lice, silly minded, Tracoma, retardation ,contageous desease, venereal deseases, etc. and these special cases removed from the general Que, marked with blue chalk to be sent back.

Oftimes a family of parents and children were separated by such processing.
The steamship lines were required to prescreen passengers coming into these new world ports as fit in mind and body, not likely to become a public charge and these prescreening details put on the ships manfest for each passenger.

All were de loused and and all baggage and possessions inspected and recorded on the ships manifest list before they embarked on the steam ship coming to the New World.

The ship conditions in economy steerage were atrocious. No sleeping or eating facilites, no sanitation or bath compound, and the crowding was similar to that of cattle or birds being transported.

These tests were repeated at Ellis Island Processing Center and if one of them was not met the person was marked for return.

Between 1822-1924 71% of immigrants coming to the US came through this Ellis Island at a rate of some 5000 people a day.

The emigrants were asked many questions under the bureaurocratic screening process.
Many of them the same questions they had been asked in the prescreening in the old country.
Name, Birth date, place of origin, how much money did they have, moral status,their prison and employment records.

If the prospective claimed he has a job waiting for him in America he was rejected and sent back as an undesirable for taking away a job from an American.
He had to prove he would not become public charge, LPC.

The steerage passengers were held on board ship till there was room at the island to process them. Often days or weeks.

They were cargo while the first class and second class passengers were processed summarily on board; verifying the questions already on their ship manifest.

Oftimes a child disappeared from steerage and was processed with the first or second class as a part of their party and a child of so and so,While the rest of the family was put through the processing center.

Sometimes a child was rejected with scarlett fever or a cough or breathing problem and taken from the family group, who could not speak English, and were not told why. Marked to be deported.

A child under 11 was not allowed to be sent back without a guardian or a family member as someone had to go with them.
This disrupted families totaly.

But if they got through the process and were released to go downstairs to the golden door exit, they were treated to a commissary where you could buy food ,a railroad ticket office, a telegraph office, an exchange, and what was called the 'kissing post' where they were ferried to the mainland and allowed to survive as best they could, if they could.

By this time several societys of ethnic groups were in operation to help the immigrants get through the process on the island, fill out the necessary paper work ,find them jobs, and provide them with shelter and food.
They also gave free postage so the emigants could write home to their villages to allow them to know they had arrived safely.
No telephone or internet services and the telegrams were expensive.

Most of the peasant population imigrants coming fora better life were rural and had never been out of their native villages before or seen money or spoken any language except that they had at their mothers knee .
Nor coud they read and write.

They had few if any skills, and had been totally uprooted from their village life and they were here to work.

The US at that era also had competition for worker imigrants from Canada, Australia, Brazil and South Africa.

But in 1894 the Immigration Resisntance League, headed by Henry Cabot Lodge of Boston worked to restrict the suspect and poor.

When the emigrant applicant had completed their 5 hour screening wait they were offered donuts and milk.
A meal was served them by the steamship lines which was usually tasty and wholesome but ethnic foods were not served and the north europeans refused to eat Italian spigettii and the Jews would eat nothing because it was not 'kosher'.

Women alone were not allowed to continue on with out an escort; a brother, a husband, a sponsor.
They were particularly scrutenized for moral uprighness as prostitition, white slavery, or public charge potentials were suspected of them.

In 1910 quota laws were established allowing 3% of the total population of the country from which they were coming.

In 1917 the new quota laws were enforced in place after the first world war ended.
President Wilson had issued a Presidental Order detaining any illegals from being sent home during the duration of the hostilites, turning the processing center into a detention camp.

A read and write law was applied.

The emigrant was to be literate in the native language of the country he came from.

In 1919, 26,000 were processesd when the detention order was lifted. In 1920, 225,000 came in.
In 1921 560 thousand.

Under the Quota laws and other older prossesssing requirments.
This remined the major appliction till 1924 when the golden door was replaced with the oveseas Consulate and the Visa system.
A visa was obtained in his home country from the US or other Consulate before he embarked.
This allowed him to enter with summary examination and if he were in good health on arrival and not a criminal, an anarchist or a rebel, had money, he was not sent back as the Visa had already cleared him for entry.

When the Quota system was in place boatloads crammed the harbor from various countries and if the quota for that particular county had been filled they were all sent back. The entire boatload returned at expense to the shipping company.

In 1928 25,000 was the quota allotment for the Irish Free State born in 1920 after a civil war in Ireland and the establishment of peace treaty between the rebel rebublician forces and the government of Great Britain.

During its hayday from 1900-1924 programs were established for the holdees;
a new mom program for children born on the island who were automatically US citizens
Schools
sewing classes
calasthenics
a libray
a play ground
sunday concerts in native music

Ball playing was taught to the emmigtants. The old country folk never had balls.

The Consolate system worked much better than the processing center and is still in use today and has been adopted by much of the worlds countries to facilatate tourism and immigration.
The right of return was established to allow persons not able to stay in the new world for one reason or another, to return to their native land without exclusions.

In 1911 'Kosher' food was introduced and the Jew was finaly allowed to eat.
The island now sported a hospital building for sick person who could be treated and recovered and hence approved and a dormitory housing 2000 people in sleepign quarters since 1910.

By 1930 and the depression, and worry over criminal elements was stong and the detention center idea was revived using the prossessing center which was essentualy empty durign the 30s.
No one came.

When war broke out in Europe in 1939/40 the regulations were rigid and tightend and the island became a virtual jail for the duration.
Foriegners were considered spys. Particulary women.

By 1945 Ellis was obsolete and on November 12, 1945 the Center was closed.

The government tried to sell the island but had no takers.
The 35 buildings, 2 water towers and a ferry were of no value.

The buildings fell into disrepair and the ghoasts of old poverty stricken people roamed the island.

In 1965 President Lyndon Johnson toured the island and ordered its resotartion making it a part of the National Parks, Statue of Liberty National Park.
The Staute standing in the harbor was the first site of the emigrant ships and most of them retained a deep attachment to the lady in the harbor for their remaining lives and passed this reverence of what America stood for on to their children.
A Sunday outing for an imigrant still not proficient in English, and stil decked in visable signs of old country wear, would stand for hours gazing out into the harbor from the Bowrey rails along the East River shore.

156 million in private donations were collected to restore and renovate the collapsing facilites and in 1990 the Island buildings was reopened as a museum.

A wall of Honor has been constucted around the facility for names of processed and for a fee, names can be added to the wall by the decendants of these ancestors who made the treck over the great wide water. Waited patiently for processing. Endured the separation of his or her family uprooting. Struggled to become American and to survive and to prosper and to find freedom and independence, security and prosperity.

Many followed a path of 100 % ending of the past cutting all ties to the old county.
Proud to be American to forget the world and its troubles and so they did.
Their children and grandchildren anglosized.
The old language forgotten.The old religion lost. The old song and dance revampted to American style and the old village forgotten.

The Yank was born and knew not who he was or why he was only that he was an American.
Maybe a German or Irish, Polish or Sweedish, English or Spainish and the Yank went home in 1940-45.
Leaving his unidentified crossbred lines on the fields of Normandy and Flanders.
On the bottom of the ocean or the Siegrfried line and the Builge. In the deserts of north Africa and the secret gardens of Italy or sometimes at his own Arlington National Cemetary.

The serf freed. The family discarded. The past forgotten. The future unsounded.

In a personal sense the History proved an awakinig to certain reasons for my own mothers fears of emagration as she arrived at age 10. Was sent off from war torn north Ireland with an older sister Mary under the sponsorship of an Uncle and Aunt.

When she was near arriving in harbor she was brought up from economy class, dressed by her aunt in an Amercian outfit.
Told at all costs not to open her mouth [she had a brogue], and inspected with her aunt on board as part of the aunts family.
Her child or grandchild and waltzed into the US with the upper class passengers,
An illegal emigrant.
She had not to pass through Ellis at all. By then a sea of corruption and incompetence.

She was put to work in her aunts house and told she was born in 1910 and was 12 years old.
She as actually born in 1911 and 10 years old as she came in May and was born in November.

She ,like almost all the imigrants had no birth record.

If she had been rejected to be sent back because of age or other impediment, her sister Mary now 16 and old enough to work would have been required to go with her as guardian.

This slipping by immingration in 1922 lead to a life long fear in my mother of being found out and deported.

She was not going to become LPC and never applied for any welfare benefit or licence.
She was ever able to remember her disappared status to first or second class and her aunt and uncles deception.

She had the same name as he was her fathers brother and so she remained all her life never marrying in fear of Immigation Acts reguarding her status.

Her sister Mary apparenly got in but it is today still not known if she passed through Ellis Island or if she had a sponsor who picked her up.
Afterall she was 16. Eligible for moral scrutiny and a sponsor.

The two girls were split up and hardly knew each othr after that arrival.
Neither were content in their work assignments and in due time Mary escaped her clannish Irish household on long Island, went to NY city and was able to complete a marriage with a handsome fellow of Norman French decent.
she had 4 children and died in Amerian in an unhappy state of mind.

In 1927 after the Visa application of 1924 and the establishment of overseas Consolates, 2 of the brothers of this family of 10 siblings emigrated to NYC not needing to pass the island center having completed the processing in the British UK and holding British passports.

They both became citizens and held businesses in NYC and cross married.
One a German girl and the other a Polish.

In the depression era of the 30s another sister of the 10 came. Anne, who alledgedly had a husband in Boston or came to be married.
Again a ruse of only as she had an escort or needed to have one in the family who came and picked her up.
No one knew if she entered at Boston or NY.

Later she had a son of a man who was Cuban and this one ,a married man whose wife eventually showed up.
The city of NY raised her child as she had ideas to go back to Great Britan with this infant born in America.

Of these siblings coming to the land of freedom and justice, no closeness was retained, no records found ,no histoy told.
They lived as strangers to each other.
All were told they were British not Irish.

Imigration required reading and writing a native langauge and none living in north Ireland spoke or were ever taught Irish gaelic.
Plus a Quota for the Irish Free State was much lower than that for UK the empire, and it is still an empire ,financial of not landed.

Of the 10 children of this small farm family on only 10 acres in Tyrone only 3 remained.

1 girl and 2 boys. The youngest getting the farm.

An older boy, Pat, came.
He got on a boat in the 20s. Got work with the Mob runng boot liquour. Got into trouble by sifening off either boose or profit.
Was told he was to be hit for it. Went down to the dock. Got on a boat to Ireland and died in the garden eating garlic so the story was told, but left two illigitimate children in the US. Children of his grilfriend.
He was more American than he knew apparently.

This Pat also it is told in Ireland, actually was picked up in NY spent some time in a mental area. Probaly at Belview or on Ellis island. Was deported to North Ireland where his mother was distrought at his craziness and he was kept in a mental home in the UK where he died.
Either way the wild rebellious boy didnt make it.

The youngest girl, born in 1919, the modern era, married ,had 7 children and because of the same old unemployment problem of 1910 and beyond, emigrtated with her husband and 7 children and Herself to Australia where in they remain this day successfull and secure if not fairly prosperous.

Of my own mother, she lived her whole adult life in the shadow of her arrival by deceptive practice.
Always in fear of being picked up by Immigration.

She never applied for any public benifit not to become an LPC.
She never obtained a job benefit and always lurking on the shaddy side of employment private nursing circuit.

She never applied for ration stamps or public housing but was 'helped' by lesser gang types.
She was taken care of.

She never discussed her family or her home and was used all her life in the US from 1922 till she died by violence in 1974 .
52 years in the shadow of the gun.

No one mourned the passing of this Irish girl with a brouge but her grandchildren.
No one sent remorse or flowers.

The church she deserted buried her in a grave belonging to the daugther of the aunt who had told her, never open your mouth, and kept her on tight rein working for no wages till she was 18 when the uncle threatened to send her back.

She had not been sent back. She had not become a public charge .If she had become a white slave she kept her silence and no one knew of it.
She slipped between 3 governments and many not to straight boyfriends but never decended to a state of detachment until she was secure. Then she was unable to handle it all .

She never went back to north Ireland.
Why?
For fear of her family, for dislike of the poverty and volite politics of the region.
Not as much as fear that if she left American shores she would not be let back in.

She could not apply for a passport. She was not a citizen.
She could not go home again and this 6th child slipped through the cracks of both poverty and prosperity and the 20th centuries greatest war and the transition from the cart and the walk and the steamship to the airoplane vs the fairy bomb.

Her daugher however managed to defy the emigrant inspection in having prison record--expunged, becoming a public charge, not fit mentally or physically for admittance and holding a birth certificate with a false father on it and a US and an Irish passport as well as being refugee for Canada immigaration. As well as two marriage and divorce certificates

It is I would have been sent back. Never made it out of the sheep shed.
But much of what I belive and feel by osmosis I found in this film of Ellis.
The stuggle to survive of the poverty stricken, helpless and ignorant of the world.

Those helpless masses yearning to breath free.


Judi Donnelly
copyright May 9, 2011


sourse: Ellis Island, History Channel.com, A&E TV Network ,Greystone Communications, 1997


MY GREEN VALLEYS


Oh, the seagulls are callin' and the wind is in the sails,
And she's fast moving out to the sea
On a ship bound for St Johns three thousand miles away,
A human cargo my comrades and me.

It hurts me to think of the things I left behind,
Though the famine has blackeded the land,
And to look now for something that I may never find,
Its a problem thats now close at hand.

There's a fever a ragin' and the winds have died away,
And our jounrey may no longer be,
Though the plague is a shadow that lingers night and day,
Warmer thought of green valleys I see.

chorus

Fair thee well green valleys. God keep you the same,
If only in my mind you'll be,
I'm sailing dark waters for far Americay
And never more my green valleys to see.

This quickesential song, written by the Irish holds the feeling of the Immigrant for all and with this note,

Criochnaich do deirenach post!
The end for the Last Post!

of this blog of review and may I live long enough to begin another in future.

Judi Donnelly

sourse: 50 Complete Rebel Songs,Fighing Men of CrossMaglen,, MVD Ltd., Newry, Down, Ireland, Arran Records, 2005

Friday, April 29, 2011

BEALTAIN

Devices-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Subject: bealtain
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 2011 13:15:50 -0400

QUARTER DAY POEM
So much has happened in this Quarter
Inducing fairy sons and daughters
Radiating all the waters
Leaving all our nerves in tatars;
Enough! Enough ! this day to pray
As we glide along our way
Hoping for a safer day
And holding wild witch forces well at bay;
For us to practice KNOW THYSELF
keep faith with family and friend
Never leave the world to end
But always to speak and push old send
And see if we ourselves cant mend
Without war and without offend.
Judi Donnelly
copyright 22 April 2011



At the time of Nial Noigiallach who was killed in the field by an irate cennsaillan noble sept in 379 AD, Bealtaine was kept regualrly at Tara hill.
The fires lite at Bealtaine were the first spring fires lit in Ireland and the cows were than run through it and purified befoe they were taken from the winter quarters to the summer hill pastures by the shepard tenders where they were kept all summer the aoire living in little self built hillside mud huts with straw roof and oftimes players of flutes and small harps.
These fires are the fiers that were contested by Patrick under Nialls Son Laugaire O Neill when Patrick lit the pashal fires before the Bealtaine fires were lit and this caused anger and disruption against the Christain teacher.
However Laugaire did not allow him to be killed for this offence.
Bealtaine was the spring gathering of a fies , stories and games held at Tara hill and apparently since at least 703 BC when the Feis was begun by Eocaid Ollam Fodla ,high king at that time.
Beal = mouth
tain = cattle
so Bealtain should become 'mouth cattle'.
The fire may have been though by the druids as a cure or help for hoof and mouth desease in cattle.
Not so much a magic superstitious rite as one of Irish practicality as home remedy for any deadly deseases the cows may have picked up on winter feed lot food.
Th spring tonic as it were as we ourself eat the dandelion greens for the same purpose.
Irleand the land of Frossach ,fields of shamrock and wine flowers.




The pattern of Astronomic science correlation of the moon revolutions and sun Equinox as devised by the Druidic Irish calculations and observed with the festivals of the Crossquarter days and the sun appearance at Brug n Boine , Ceat Ceal and the Hill of th Hags or Witches, Carn T Caillich ,in Meath.
1st RAith [Re]
1st Quarter New year--April May June
The Irish year begins March 21 Vernal Equinox.
[viewed as a lazer light at the carns of the Hags in Meath]
1 May--Bealtain Cross Quarter Day[ Fire festival]
Held at Teamair Hill
Cross Quarter day when moon has passed 40 days from the vernal equinox,
50 days remaining till the next equinox citing of the sun.

2nd Raith
2nd Quarter July August September
August 1--Lugnasa Cross Quarter Day
The harvest festival, a gay festival
crossquarter day when moon has passed 40 days from the June 21 equinox,
50 days reamining till autumn equinox.

3rd Raith
3rd Quarter October November December
November 1 Halloweeen Crossquarter Day
The moon has passed 40 days since the autumnal equinox cited at Hags hill carns September 21,
50 days remaining till December equinox.

4th Raith
4th Quarter January February March
Imbuilga, St Brigets Day, Cross Quarter Day
The moon has passed 40 days since the December 21 citing at Brug Na Boyne,[Achad Aldai Field of the All breath],
50 days remaining till the spring equinox ,March 21
The 4th quarter was not solemnitized.
No feis held at the December 21 solstice.

Imbuilg is the time of the lambing season and the freshening of the milk of the cows to make butter.
This the first celebrations of the expected March Spring Equinox, March 21 and the renewal of the year and life itself.
The Brug has a name to it in Irish, Acad Aldai,[what for all 40], older than the Dannan Brug and the Hill of the Hags does also.
Cnoc Cailleach[ hill of the old woman or witch]
These sites are totally neglected by the Modern Irish government although they are probably the most ancient astrononical clocks reamining in Europe or the Middle East.
The Crossquarter days held a feis to mark the 90 day quaters half way mark beteen the equinox; between the beginning of life and growth and the dark sunless cold and hungry winter.
The fairs should be recovered and held on the old sites as they were before the invasions to mark not a pagan ritual but the knowledge of space and time to the people, tourist, pilgrim and indiginous alike.

Judi Donnelly
copyright April 29 2011



http://bealtaine.com/


From: Saved by Windows Internet Explorer 8
Subject: Bealtaine Festival | Celebrating creativity in older age
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 2011 13:04:27 -0400


Skip to content



What is Bealtaine?
Festival Programme
What's on near me?
Cultural Companions
Festival Highlights
News
Ambassadors
Videos and Comments


Age & Opportunity
Bealtaine is coordinated by Age & Opportunity, the Irish national organisation working to promote greater participation by older people in society. Check out the Age & Opportunity web site.

Diese Seite auf Deutsch

It looks like you don't have flash player 6 installed. Click here to go to Macromedia download page.

The Bealtaine Festival is a unique and groundbreaking Irish festival celebrating creativity in older age.

From 1-31 May 2011, we invite you to join thousands of others on a creative journey to "Push the boat out’’!
Festival Programme


Click above to download our programme for the 2011 Bealtaine Festival.
Facebook

Follow us on Twitter


Bealtaine - celebrating creativity in older age
Age & Opportunity, Marino Institute of Education, Griffith Avenue, Dublin 9, Ireland
Telephone: +353 (0)1 805 7709

Photo Credits

THE NORMANS CAME

The Normans Came


By 1157 Gilla meic Liag known in the Church by his Latin name Gelesius was Archbishop and Abbot of St Patricks see in Armagh.

He had been appointed to this post in 1137 from his Abbottship of Derry Abbey when Malachy, later sainted, wanted to return to his original home and see of Connor/Down at Bangor Abbey.

Gilla believed in the continental unity of the Church and was oversear of the establihment of the Cistercian order at the New Abbey of Melifont built by O Carroll, prince of Oriel during Giolla Abbottship.

In 1157 a Synod was held at Melifont and in 1158 a synod at BegTaig and in 1160 a synod at Clones, home of the famous Irish lace manufacture.
The Church ,both celtic and continental, held great power in Ireland which since 1152 at the Synod of Kells held four dioceses approved by the Pope; Armagh,Dublin, Tuam and Cashel.

By 1166 Muirtagh O Conor had died in Connact and Ruidri O Coner was elected king of Ireland.
As Ard Ri he recieved submission from Leith Cuin and the northen O Neill.
At Ath boy a convention was held in 1167 with church leaders Gelesius of Armagh, Laurence O Toole Archbishop of Dublin, the Chiefs of Ulidia , Meath,Brefne [ORourke, Donchad o Carroll [cearbaile] of Airgialla.
30,00 men were present at this Assembly.
The only souther tuath present was Dunchad Fealan of Decies at this triennial meeting.

At this time Dergovilla O Donnell Rourke had been with Murchad [Murrough] since 1153 some 15 years, and it may be at this Assembly that her proposed fate was discussed asking for her return with her dowry and cattle to her husband O Rourke in Breifne.

In 1168 the seat of Murrough of Leinster, Ferns, was burned by Dermot, and in that same year Aidrian Breakspear was elected Pope Adrian.

At that time there was an Irish trade in goods and slaves with the port of Bristol in England and Dermot sailed to Bristol where he was in contact with Lord Berkeley, Robert Fitz Harding.

Richard de Clare was then Lord of Penmbroke in Wales after called Stongbow by his father[the Welsh were archers called on at all times to defend England and English rulers. Hence the Price of Wales].

Along with Clare in Penbroke were Robert Fitz Stephens, and Marice Fitzgerald both sons of Henry 2 by his mistress Nesta.

Cambrisis was the bishop of St Davids in Penbroke and a Welsh man.

The English often sold children and relatives into indenture and the Irish often cited this practice as divine justice, slavery and serfdom being one of the English peoples many sins.
The English sold their children to the Irish and Bristol was a slave trade town in 1169.

Villeins or in the irish Willeins or Uilleins, were slaves and serfs that belonged to the land and went with the farm if it were sold or inherited.
This system practiced as well in Russia right down to the 1917 Bolshevick Revolution and thus tying the Irish peasant to his lordship estates prevailed through the great famine of 1845 when his lorship often paid the 10 pounds passage of his whole slave tenant population to the new Word to clear his land for cattle and sheep.

A logical conclusion if potatoes would not grow the farming peasant was no longer needed to till the soil as the emerald isle sprouted 40 shades of green grass upon which livestock profitabley flourished.

Of course many landlords in 1845 believed Trevellyns theory that the many deaths and loss of one type of potato the lumper, was a judgment from God against the disolute and sinful Irish and many not only stayed securely in their big house or vacationed in London but sent out local calvanistic preachers to sit with the dying while they died.
Oftimes occuping the only chair in the cabin while the ragged family passed away on reeds on the floor.

The Church in Ireland through Gilla maic Liac O Donnelly and Laurence o Toole and a besiging force tried to negociate with Stongbow at Dublin but the De Clare Earl prevailed.

By 1171, due to reports of the haughty unruliness against his own authority displayed by these Welshmen, Henry 2 of Anjou arrived at Dublin harbor with 400 ships, 500 knights, 4000 soldiers Myler Fitz Henry son of Nesta, William Fith Aldelm ,Humphry de Bohen ,Hugh de Lacy, and Robert F Barnard and subdued his unrully subjects from Pembroke FitzStephens, Fitzgerald, De Clare, Raymond Gross and others.

He also requested the submission of the Old Irish chiefs and lords which they willing did to recieve Henrys protection of their lands and lordships and the Welsh/Noramn conquors .

Mc Carthy submitted and pledged his leige to Henry at Waterford.
Donal O Brien of Thomand submittd at the river Suir and surrendered Limerick.
Donchad of Ossory submitted as did O Faolan, chief of Decis.

Henry set FitzStephens free and annexed Wexford.

O Rourke submitted at Dublin. Briefne had got back his wife and her cattle from king OConor who had ordered her and these cows confiscated from Leinster and returned to her lawful church approved husband.
[Never let it be said the Church has no power in Ireland. To Muire pray the 3 year old prince on his 2 knees.
Mother of God].

Ruaire OConnor Ard Ri of all Ireland submitted after a resistance agaisnt Henry at the Shannon.

Hugh De Lacy and William Aldelm rode out to recieve this submission of the king of Ireland at Christmas time 1171.

A pavilion of Irish wattles was constructed at Dublin for the signing by OConnor of the Submission.

Henry remained in Ireland through the winter of 1171-72 and in 1172 ordered a synod at Cashel rock, home of Munster Eoganact kings.
The thesis of this synod was to pass legislation
1. contracting marriage as to affinity limits,
2. baptism of infants and the caticizmic rights of the church,
3. tithes and in kind [pigs, chickens, produce] to local parish churches,
4 church lands exempted from any lay taxes nor church to pay exactions to the nobility who had given them lands and buildings;
collection of food to be given 4 times a year from farms and nobilty of their parishes,
5. clergy relieved of eric responisbily from blood fueds.

A Parliament convened at Lismore establishing Engish law as the supreme law of land and Rutland was appointed Viceroy of Lismore Ft.
De lacy was given Meath and appointed Lord Justice by Henry 2.
He was given 800,000 acres of Irish land.

Henry regranted Limerick city and Kerry to Desmond Fitzgerald and O Canayl [O Connell] got Kerry and Clare.

Hugh de Lacy a favorite of Henry of Anjou was also appointed lord Constable of Ireland.

Thomas Walters, the butler, was appointed Earl of Ormond in Tipperary.

Henry gave Dublin city to Bristol as a colony.Waterford to Henry de Bohn and Wexford to William Aldelm.
Ulster was still free and in the hands of the O Neill.

On Easter monday Herny 2 of Anjou left Dublin for Wexford and on April 17,1172 departed for Port Finna Wales St Davids.

He had spent 6 months in Ireland and disrupted this entire ancient system of chiefdomships, replacing it with earls of his chosing, Welsh/Normans rulers, and bringing in the continental church in full bloom overwhelming the old celtic order and the hereditay system of abotts and bishops in favor of appointees from Rome and Pope Adrian 2 Breakspear an Englishman.

After Henry left o Ruorke was killed by Gryffyth who was a nefew of Fitzgerald and his head hung on the gates of Dublin after he was beheaded.

De Clare ,Strongboe, living at Ferns in Leinster married his daughter to Quincy giving her territory to Duffrys of Wexford.
Leinster was under military rule.

O Faley an Irish chieftan refused to submit to Stongboe and desolated his territoty.
Quincy was killed and Stronbow recalled by Henry to France.
In 1173 Henry sent de Clare back to Ireland as Viceroy.

But in 1174 Maurice Fitzgerld attached Munster and O Brien and there was an Irish rebellion all over Ireland.
Hugh Tirrell a Norman solder, acted for de Lacy, the Lord Lieutenant and the English were massacred by the natives after Strongboe recalled Raymond and gave Basilia in marraige to de Clare.

Tyrell was charged to rebulit Meath with English forts.

In 1175 the Bull of Adrian made in 1155 was anounced to all the bishops of Ireland instucting them to read the Bull from their pulpits.

Both O Brien and O Conor kept their fielty to Henry at Lock Dearg under Myler FitzHenry and the treaty between KIng O Conor and Henry 2 which the bishops were sent to negociate with Henry was completed. The Treaty of Winsor.

There were 7 divisional provinces in Ireland in 1169

Desmond-- McCarthy

Thomnond-- O Brien

Hi Ceanselach-- Mahon, Leinster/ Meath

South O Neill Clann Colman, Malachlins

North O Neill O Neill and O Donnell

Hi Bruine--O Conor
Hi Fiachra-- O Conor Connact

The Treaty made all further Irish kings vassels to English crown and gave all control of the soil of Ireland to Henry.

In 1176 Strongboe De Clare died at Dublin in May.

Hugh Tyrrell, knight in the order of St Johns bestowed the lands of Killmahaloch to the prior of the hosptal.
Stongbow had founded Kilmainham.

In 1176 Isabel de Clare Stongboe married Wiliam Mareseall, the earl of Penbroke.
She was the daugher of Eva Murrough and de Clare.

John de Coursey, Robert Fitz Stephens and Milo de Coga remained the Kings men.

De Coursey arrived in Ireland in 1176 having come before that to France and England.
He was a baron with 22 knights and 300 soldiers.

In January of 1177 he went to Downpatrick, Ulidia and the territory of chief Dunlevy.

At that time the Popes legate Vivian was in town and the legate encouraged King Donlevy to fight and resist de Coursey with a collected force of 10,000 men.

The battle of Downpatrick was fought and the Irish routed.

Malachy was the Bishop of Down out of Bancour and de Coursey rode in on a white steed with a bird on his shield and de Coursey won the January and the June battle of 1177.

The legate went to Dublin and invoked a counsil of Bishops who upheld Adrians Bull and demanded it be obeyed or face excomunication.

The Bull favored English gold, by allowing free food for the church and O Conors son went over to Henry in Connacht and many south Wales people went to Limerick.

In 1178 de Lacy of Meath was appointed Lord Deputy and the crozier of St Patrcick was removed from Armagh to Dublin.

De Coursey was still attaching Ulster and was being attached by O Neill and Ulla.
He was forced to flee to Downpatrick and deLacy was removed as Lord Justicar and Henry generally was looing his grip.
He had given Ireland to his son prince John who later came into Ireland to adminster it and built Dublin Castle in the middle of the city just souh of the Essex Quay.

On November 14 1180, Bishop Laurence OToole died in France at the Counsil of Talman and Jefery de La Hay repalced O Toole under the Norman policy of replacing all Irish bishops with continental ones.

The Archbishop of Armagh was curtailed and John Cuming was elected Archbisop of Dublin.

In 1182 fitz Stephens son murdered Tyrell and Mc Carthy siezed Cork.

In 1185 John m Henry came to Ireland and took his army to Ulster.
John proved to be a fairly good leader and administrator and in 1200 built Dublin Castle now home of Republic of Ireland administative offices.

In the Norman overtaking of Irish language, self government and independence, it centered itself into the Ireland culture lasting till the coming in 1543 or so of Henry 8 as he began the Reformation designed to detach himself and his country from the contol of Rome and the catholic church in order to divorce his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon because she had delivered a daughter Mary not a son.

Henry proceeded to demolish and distroy the monastery system in England and in Ireland which continued through the Elizabethan age and the founding and development of religious and political freedom in North America.

Tiny Ireland in its north Atlantic positon being right in the middle of it all.


Judi Donnelly
copyright May 7 2011

sourse: Notes Notes and Notes

SOME OF VIKING LORE

SOME OF THE VIKING LORE


In 810 AD there was a solar eclipse visable in the north country and Charle Mange son of Pepin was inagurated as king of Franks at Denis Monastary at Dungal.

With this era of enlightenment Ireland was invaded by a Danish fleet of 140 ships in 849.

These Dubhgals from the north attached the Finegals at Dublin as Anlaf, Ivar and Sitrick arrived from the north Norway [Nor Bhaoi] North Bay.

Amlaf to Dublin
Ivar to Limerick
Sitrick to Waterford and Cork.

The Irish submitted to this three pronged fleet and paid tribute.

At the time of the Lochlainn/Danish incursion Niall Caille M Aed Oirdnide m Neill was king in Ireland and king of Aileach fort in Donegal.

Niall died at the Callan River in Armagh in 843 drowning there after the battle of Leith Chaim with the Normandy Vikings who had arrived in Ireland with 60 ships.

He had been King for 13 years since 830 and is allegedly buried in Aramgh at the hill of the Monks where there is a view of all 6 northern counties.
This grave and probably a convent church left to time and decay today as are most of the historical sites of Ireland.

These roving people were known as gentiles or lochlanders and were proficiant sea voyagers. Long armed, large handed ,big men who were strong and hardy.
Not particularly interested in either God or book learning.
They were skilled in material lore, navigation and trading.
Proficinet in Sagas and sea chants and probaly decendents o fthe Phonecian [Fonecian second child of the stone age or under chiefs of sadness.

It was the ancient mariner Phonicians who developed the alphabet and gave it to the Greeks.

Niall Caille O Neill was succeeded as Irish /Aileach king by his child Aed Finnliath who ruled from 863- 876 ,after a gap of 20 years between father and son.

Aed listed as the 38th Milisian king of Ireland.


It is possible the 20 years gap noted between Niall Caille of the North and his son Aed was only the customary sharing of power between the ruling branches of the north O Neill and the South O Neill as Finnliath himself was not succeded by eitehr of his notable sons, Domhnaill of Aileach or Niall Glundub, but by Flann Sinna O Neill of the southern branch.
He who achieved the Ard Ri in 879 Ad.


Before the Viking Norse invasions the were no foreigners in Ireland.
Those from previous invasions having been absorbed creating a seaparte people with specific genetic heritage and racial charateristics.

These earlier amalgamations were of tribes of the same genetic ancestory of old.
The Partalon and Fir Bolg and the Nemedians and the formor all belonging to a comman ancestry as well maybe, the Danannain as well as the last invasion of Mili from Spain.

Then Ireland was basically left alone after this some 1500 or so years during some 5 derbfines of time had amalgamated the island population into a racial unit.

The viking of the North Bay disrupted this amalgamation even though they themselves were cousinal relations of the existing Irish population of 850 AD.

The Brehon law prevailed as common and traditional law and unwritten rights.
This was the Great Code, Senchus Mor codifided by Patric and his commission in 435 AD or so and the compilation of common and statue law for the Irish stood from 1500 years till James Stuart declared it unlawful and replaced the old Brehon compilation with the Engish law in 1603.


But Aed an ancestor of the Donnellys made alliance with the Danes and in consert with them raided Meath than held by Lorcan O Conor who Aed blinded and this prince was subseqently drowned by Anlaf of Dublin part of the Alliance of the Hi Neill.
This raid was conducted from his Hi Neill post in Armagh.

Anlaf was subsequently killed in Scotland around 846 AD at Straith Clyde.
Aed Finliath ruled in Irelands for 16 years after that and died peacefully in his own bed in 879 AD.

Ivar, brother of Anliaf king of the Norse, sailed up the Shannon Esturay to Limerrick where he established a Norse stonghold.
The Irish were inland when their Norwegian raiders cousins came who preferred to stay with their port ships rather than scourge the contryside and like the early English traders and trappers in North American and the South Seas kept their settlements near the sea and traded with the native people rather than trying to divest them of their land and stock.

The roving sailors however were brethern and demaneded tribute and women as well as quarters in bad weather so that in every farmstead were one or 2 quartered soldeirs who not only made themselves comfortable from the the fam produce but demanded satisfaction from the farmers daughter and perhaps a wife leading to much ranquor against these sailor fellows which thus has given naval forces around the world a reputation for raping, precocious livng, pirating and whoring .

The Vikings however were strong and well armed and very little could be done to distroy them.

Plus there were more in the north who would readily take ship to defend their brethern in these outpost lands of plenty by Danish standards.

The Dublin port headed by Anlaf was not even recovered after the Norse were driven off to the sea by Brian Boruma in 1014, but held their city and alliance with Leinster still even after the Norman Invasion.

They not only traded and allied with the Irish for centuries they married and bred with them creating a new race in the county called the Hiber/Norse.
This the Norse did in all their habitations from
Russia France, England ,Scotland and possibly ports south leaving us there offspring.

When the Norse men first came into Ireland they, as seamen, had a great distain for the Churchmen living in their separate enclaves made of stone.
These called the monastery which is probably a Norse word meaning womans territory.
Having first come to such abbeys run and occupied by women Nuns and probably also viewed the effeminate priggish monks as womanish.

They therefore got pleasure in tormenting these male servants of God in throwing their precious books and manuscripts ,musical chants, and other delvings and poems they considered trival, non practical pursuits by tossing these manuscripts and rolls into various lakes tied to stones to annoy and disburb the distraught christains.

This then in their desire to remain ignorant and proud of it , distroying at least 1/2 of the ancient history and storys of Ireland and the continents pre christain days.

A few pieces were sent back to Norway to their own kings and some smuggled out with trade to the various monk houses on the continent particulary to Germany,France and northern Italy.

If any went as far as Rome they have also been lost as the Vatican makes no effort to discover or reveal their secretive collection to their true owners and nations.

The Norse did eventually accept christainity after settling and establishing their own independent orders not only in Ireland but in Scotland ,Great Britain Russia the Isle, the Isle of Man and the north Bay colony of fiords and vessels itself.

In 900 Danes were driven from Dublin but Godfried, grandson of Ivar who had established the Norse settlement at Limerick recovered the town and south Ireland submitted to him.'

Although Aeds child Domnaill of Aileach ruled the north, Aed married Mal Muire, daughter of Kenneth M Alpine the grandson of Urgusia a Pict, the dauhter of Fergus who was Scots Irish.
[In the sense that he was Irish and the brother of a past king who had moved to Argyle in Scotland and hence was deamed Scots Irish not the Scots Irish we know in the US today as soldiers of Cromwells forces migrated from the Norht of Ireland to the USA].

Mac Alpine had united Albany and Pict including the stone of Destiny brought from Ireland by Achy Fergus to Argyle.

Mac Alpine took the stone to Scone where it rested till Edward I m John took it to Westminster Abbey.

Kenneth son of Alpine conquered the Picts entirely and created the Scotish kingdom by uniting Albany and Pictland now called Scotland.

Aed Finnliath married Kenneths daughher Mal Muire ,the mother of Niall Glundub O Neill, who subsequently overthrew his brother Donnall at Aileach.
Took the leadership of the north Ui Neill and thus entitled to the Ard Ri when Flann Sinna O Neill died in 916 AD.

Flann had also taken the woman Mal Marie as wife after her husaband Aed had died thus giving him control of the northern Ui Neill as well as the south.

In 907 Cormac mc Cullachan, king of Munster and Bishop of Cashel fought the battle of Moy Lena in Offaly [kings county] and the high Neill of north submittd to him.

Flann Sinna O Neill and the north Leith Cuin and Laigen fought against Mumna, Eoganach and Cormac himself was killed at Moy Lena.
600 Munster men died there as recorded in the Psalter of Cashel which later disappeared under the Norman dispute between silken Thomas of Kildare and Butler of Ormond.

It may well be in Trinity College Library still unread or it may have been spirited to England and Bodelien Library as Butler last had it from Fitzgerald as his ransom.
Of what value is an Irish history when weighed against a Norman princes life?

When Flann Sinna O Neill died [decc] in 916 his son in law Niall Glundub O Neill became King.

Flann Sinna Himself hird Danes and collaborated with these allys to conquer Munster.
But after the Battle of Dublin fought against the Danes by Niall Glundub O Neill, Niall mac Hugh ,in which Niall was killed in 920 he was succeded by Donough O Neill of the southern O Neill and was later suceeded by Nialls son,Muirchertach mac Niall mic Hugh Aed Finnliath.
Murchertach of the leather cloaks.
King of Aileach Grianna lis.

He vanquished the Danes in Ulster driving them from Loch Neagh port and the upper Bann river and in 931 he again pushed them out of Loch Erne taking from them 200 heads.

This prince of Aileach joined forces with his cousin Donagh m Neill attached Norsemen and devistated Dublin.
But Callachan king of Cashel always on the Danish side held Dublin with 200 men.

By 937 Anlaf king of Dublin fought at north Umbria against the Anglo Saxon King Athelstan.
Anlaf at the head of his Irish Norse army to the battle of BrunanBuck.

Anlaff's daugher married Constantine of Albany Scotland.
The battle of Albany was fought and many killed.
Athelstan the Saxon king won and Anlaf lost.

In 921 Armagh was burned by Godfried. The Culdees spared as they were clerics over the Cathederal.
The diposed Domnall Mc Hugh former King of Aileach and the north became a pilgrim and a culdee after Niall took over the government reins.
He had 4 sons but they did not contest his decision or his overthrow by his younger brother.
The Danes ,the Norwegains and the Saxon spoke the same language and could understand each other.

By 943 Muirchertach O Neill died in battle against the Danes.

In 944 Donogh O Neill died and Congailach O Neill ruined Dublin and the Danes.

By 956 Congalach died in battle against the Danes and Leinster and Domnall Mic Muircertach O Neill began his 24 year reign.

In 980 Domnall died and was followed by his southern ONeill cousin, Malachy the Great. Maoilsechniall took the high kingship at 30 years old.
He was the last king of the O Neill dynasty of 600 years which began with Niall 9 O Neill in 379 AD.

He proclaimed the Irish free of Danish servitude.
The battle of Tara was fought and Reginald mic Anlaf was killed.

Eidersgeal the ancient tribute was ended.
[This was the tribute established by Tauthal Teachmar about 1000 AD]

In 983 Brian Boruma mic Ceannidig of Dal Cass stood against Malachy 2 and the country was re divided between them.
Brian Leath Mog and Malachy Leath Cuin.
Prisoners were released and exchanged.

In 977 Brian and Malacy had made a treaty.
By 975 the Palace at Tara was overgrown in Weeds.
In 995 Brain Boruma burned Tara to the Ground.

The battle of Glennmama ,fought in 1000 AD eliminated Harold Mic Anlaf and 50 ONeill chiefs were with Malachy,but Malachy gave the soverienty of Ireland to Brain mic Kennedy and Tyrone O Neills and Clann Colman were excluded from the successsion by Brian.

Flaithbertach O Neill refused Brain hostages in 1000 AD.

In 1008 the southern O Neill fought Brians forces at Athlone and won.
and Aod, Prince of the north grandson of Muirchertach o Neill
Roydama was killed at the Battle of Tulka Woods, Ulster.

In 1013 Meath was invaded by Mael Morda and Danes with Leinstermen.
Flann m Malachy was killed.

Brian Kennedy refused to help Maolsechnial O Neill.

All scandanavia came to conquer Ireland totally.
Brudair
Conmaol of Dublin
Cornwall and Wales and Briton all attached to the Danes.
Brian Boru was 88 years old.

1300 Danes, 300 Laigen, 1600 in all against 7000 Irish.

400 were killed at the battle of Clontarb in 1013 fought over the Easter week,Friday, Saturday and Sunday.

Brian was praying in his tent when Brudair came and struck him in the head with an ax,killing the old leader.

Malachy o Neill resumed command and in 1016 Danish Dublin was distroyed by his army and his south Ui Neill kin.
The Danish king Sitrick was again defeated in Lynster in 1022 and Malachy subdued Ulster.

In 1018 Malachy defeated the northern o Neill and the Eugenia of Cashel Eoganach as were the Connact men and in 1022 AD Malachy defeated the Norse once more at Yellow Ford, Ath Boi.

Mailsechnial died in 1022 and was the last of the dynastic o Neills.
His career had begin with Norse raids in his country and ended the same.
With this demise, kings with opposition began with Donnchad m Brian Kennedy and this path of a split in the assemby of nobles and tribes as to the chief and ruler continued till the Norman invasion when Herny 2 of England imposed his English order on the Irish lords with a program of submission and grant and regrant.

The Hiber/Norse were absorbed into the general population or went home to the Isles, Scoland, the Isle of Man and Normandy.

Their castle remains on Cook Street covering an entire city block on Cook street just south of the Liffy Merchants Quay along with other ruins and landmarks in S W Dublin along the route.

A tour is now given by the Tourist Bord through their once owned streets and quays.

The Norse established besides Dublin, Cork, Galway, Limerich, Loch Neagh ports, Waterfod, Wexford and most of todays large town of Ireland.

The Irish then as now remained clannish and farmers of their small village clachans, struggling to kep together their own culture, language, religious beliefs and rewards.

At the end of 300 years from 850-1150 the Normans came in and a new wave again put Norse who had settled in north France and mingled with the indigenious people there ruling Irish affairs.

This French Norse system prevaled from 1200-1500 when the English came under Henry 8th and his daughter culminating in 1603 with the death of Elizabeth I and the establihsment of the Plantation system with total confiscation of Irish lands and land systems of distribution.

The Irish nobility and warriors became peasants and wild geese.

The Irish peasant became the church tenant or a beggar on the road.
The Irish middle class of Bard and traders and ollam became itinerant minstrels, preforming or treating the new lordships to survive.
This system continued unenteruped and viciously throught the reign of Victoria Regina when Famine, the Great Hunger overcame the Irish hold on their country, language and life itself.

They escaped where they could to solicit more hostile situations than they had at home; ie: No Irish Need Apply and Join the Army- death at the battle fields of the US Civl War.
Grosse Island dead of typhoid and contagion. Dead of the Fever.

Serving lesser lords all over Europe and praying on their knees in the chuches and cathederals of the continent.

In 1916 some dissident Republicans rebeled openly against the Crown rule and although they we all shot in emitional rebuttal at Killmanham jail and hospital on Dublisn Westside their act held and the British troops were overcome and a treaty drawn allowing home rule .

A civil war insued over the partial free state and the total refusal of the prodestant led English Scots of N E Uslter to accept the break with the Crown, leading to closing of 6 of the northern counties and shores from the rest of the island creating economic problems and religions divides holding a noose around the neck of the small island which still threatens to hang them all if they cannot be drawn and quatered before hand by the 86 billion debt and the land jeprosized. The remaining 5 Million people left to cope with this in 2010.

As they came in centuries past to the western ilse, the emerald of grass ,the secuity of the herd, the untapped resourse of the great forest, and the healty inovative people,the history of invasion continues under EU s laws and the islands children stand poised to survive by Immigration.

Judi Donnelly
copyright 1 May 2011

sourse: Notes

Monday, April 25, 2011

BIT OF THE ODONNELLS

BIT OF THE O DONNELLS

In 1213 AD Mc William m Richard Burke of Clan Ricard submitted to O Donnell at Athenry.
Brollagain was O D's steward.

Proir to the great battle of Down in 1260 the battle of Drum Dearg in which 352 Irish were killed along with their appointed Lords.

Brian O Neill who had submitted to the Lord Justicare in 1252 and had been seated as Lord of Tyrone by the English was their prince and leader.

Most of the northern chiefs and lords fought with him and were killed;
OCarrie, Loughlin, O Kane , O Henery, Mc Cann, DuvDirma, O Gormly, OHanlon.

The O Cane chiefs killed were 15.

For Connacht Gilcrest and O Connor, Donough, Finn, Mulrony, Teige, Gara, O Quinn, Murray.

All thse men died at Down fighting the English Norman invader, The Earl if Salisbury ,Espee.

King Brians head was cut off and taken to London where it was displayed on the Tower and his story recorded by Mac Namee of Mide his Bard.
Either John ,son of Henry 2 or his son Edward 1 was than king of England.

In 1241 the Battle of Caimeirghe fought in Ulster between
Domnall Mag Loughlin ,King of Tir Eogain and an alliance between Brian O Neill and Maelsechlainn O Domnaill [Donnell] king of Tir Conaill.
The alliance won this battle against Domnall Loughlin and Brian ONeill was inagurated King.


Eicnechan O Donnell 1201-07 was followed by his son Domnall Mor 1207-41 who was followed by his eldest son MaelSeachlainn 1241-47.
Than his second son Godfraid O Donnell from 1248-58 and finally his third son Domnaill Oc who ruled Tir Conaill from 1258-81.

Domnall Og ,m Domnaill Mor m Eicnechan ODonnell [1201-07], Prince of Tir Coniall.

His son Aodh [Hugh] 1281-90 is listed as being again inagurated from 1291-1333.

Grandson of Hugh [Aodh] of Cinel* Owen ONeill.

In the north East in 1258 Donall O Donnell chief of Tir Conail fought the English Normans and lost.

By 1281 Donnell Og O Donnell was lord of Tir Conail, Fernmanagh, O Oriel and Ulster.
Connacht and Briefne were his allies.

However he was killed by his cousin or brother and succeeded by his eldest son Aodh [Hugh] m Donnell Og [1281-90] m Hugh of Cinel Owen the north peninsilla of the country, the O Neill.

In 1290 Donnell O Donnell overran Cinel Owen expelling Nial Culunagh O Neill but with clann O Donell he was overtaken by Turlough O Donnell who deposed his Brother Aod [Hugh] O Donnell in 1290.

Toirdealbach ODonnell thus ruled from 1290-1291 and overran Donnell ODonnell and restored Culanagh ONeill.
This he did with the aid of the Scot gallowglas and Clann Donnell .

Hence both Clann Eogain on the north sea and Cinel Conail to its southwest were ruled by lords of force and not election or inheritance as the ODonells superceded themselves and each other.

The O Neill geneology does show a Domnaill m Brian m Niall Ruad m Aed in mac Aen Toiniese being inagurated in Tyrone after the battle of Down were his father Brian was killed and beheaded.
Domnall however in this enterprise of 1290 and was deposed a second time as O Neill.

Because of this internicene fighting over land, power and prestige, Richard Burke who had been granted Connact lands by king Henry 2 expelled Turough O Donnell from Tir Owen and replace him with Niall Culanagh O Neill as the O Neill had always owned Tir Eogan but a soon of the Red Earl left Nial Culanagh O Neill was killed.
O Donnel was banished from Tyrone and Brian Og O Neill was inagurated the O Neill.

Brian Og O Neill the second son of Donnall the tanist was inagurated O Neill.
Turlough was deposed in 1291 and Aed O Donnell ruled again til his death in 1333.

He was succeeded by his son Conor [Concobar] in 1333 who ruled till 1342 and was succeded by his son Aonghus ODonnell the second son of Seaan O Donnell who ruled from 1352-59 , was deposed and resumed rule in 1362-1380.

Seaan was succeeded by his brother Niall O Donnell's son ,Toirdealbach an Fiona who ruled from 1380-1422 and was suceeded by Nial Garb m Toirdealback m Nial m Aed m Domnall Oc m Domnall Mor m Eichnechan.
Bringing the O Donnell regime of Tire Conail from 1422-1439
Under Niall Garb, who sided with the Engilsh invader.

His brother Neachtan ruled from 1349-52 during the peiod of the Black Death of 49-50 and he was succeeded by Ruaidri O Donnell in 1352-54.

Nial Garb was the father and progenator of Aed Ruad.

It was Aed Ruad of 1592-1602 son of Sir Aod ,grandson of Manus m Aod Dub m Aod Ruad m Niall Garb who with O Neill rode to Kinsail where both were routed by Earl Essex, Mountjoy and the Gaelic Order of the north finally ended.

This Aod the great great great grandson of Nial Garb, the English ally.
6 generations removed.

His derbfine would have begun with Aed Dub his great grandfather.

Aedh Ruad his namesake was the end of the provious derbfine of Nial Og Aed O Donnell.
The one before that the proverbial 4 generations of rule from 1200 to 1600.
This being 400 years We assume the derbfine began in 1200 with Eicnechan but that may not be so with the records available lost of his ancestor.

75 years
4
300 years.

Figuring a derbfine of 300 years back from Aed Ruid to the beginning derbfine would be Domnall Og in 1258.

Two progenators before him only listed Eicnechan grandfather being the begining of the era in 1000 AD.

Richard Burke as well as imposing French order on Tir Eogan plundered Tir Conaill as he returend to his appointed Connact holdings known as Clan Ricard.


It was this internicene killing and usurpation in the Northwest that caused emnity and disunity between the decendends of Niall Nine O Neill [379].
Eoghain of Tir Eogain [Owen] and O Donnells of Tir Conaill with a pattern of warfare against each other that continued off and on for 300 years between the two cinels until Rory ODonnell, Aed Ruid O Donnell and Hugh Aed O Neill united to go down to defeat at the Battle of Kinsail and hence brought the last remaining stronghold of Gaeldom under Engish rule.

By 1292 Richard Burke had become by force the Red Earl of Ulster and the Irish lords reamined dispersed fighing and loving among themselves as did Connacht amongh the OConors tuaths and septs.

In 1295 Brian m Aed Buide O Neill, Lord of Tyrone was killed by his cousin Donnel O Neill along with many of his forces and friends.

This same year 1295 internicnine rivalry between Aodh Hugh O Donnell [+ 1333] and his brother Turlouch O Donnell [+1303] over titles given by the English, distroyed much of TirConell.
The country churches included.


In 1296 England under Edward I invaded Scotland and called on the Irish Norman lords Richard Buke, Gerald Fitzgerald , JohnFitz Thomas earls in Ireland to fight this war.

The force distoyed abbeys and killed many priests and women in Scotland.
By 1303 Tir Conaill under Hugh Aed O Donnell killed his brother Turlough which started a war all over Donegal and Tir Owen.
The English were also involved and hence all three sides Tir Conail, Tir Eogain and Norman died.

However Hugh O Donnell won the war and lived happily ever after.

This rebellion by O D may have been inspird by the English Earls Normans again being called to Scotland which produced a northern insurrection.

By July 1315 John 22 was elected Pope at Rome and in 1407 King Edward II died on 7 July.

In 1315 Edward Bruce of Scotland brother to the Scot king landed in Antrim with a great fleet of 300 ships.

However the Connacht OConnors sided with the Norman Richard Burke, the Red Earl against Bruce who defeated Burke that year in Mayo [mag Eo].
Hence division was again created between the north O Neill and the Connact men on the battle fields of Mayo wherby the O Neill/Bruce faction prevailed and Edward Bruce was offered the crown of Ireland by Donnall Og O Neill.

However Bruce brought poverty, famine and distuction to the land and he was finaly defeated at Faughart in October 1318.

In 1333 Aed m Donnel Og ODonnell died.
He was tigerna of Tir Conaill, Inish Owen, Fermanagh, Cinel Moan, Briefne [O Rourke].

He had reigned 50 years and is buried at Assaroe [Eas Ruid] Falls now fenced in by the Irish power and light Company .
Its history lost to local and tourist alike as Ballyshannon is repressed from the manys stories of pre Republican times.

Aodh Hugh O Donnell was succeded by his son Conor O Donnell.

By 1348 Nial Garve O Donnell died and under Neachan his brother 1349-52 the Black Death struck Ireland as well as all Europe.

O Donnells are decended from O Baiscinn Caibre, South West Clare, Moy Tura

They are the children of Saraid m Conn m Feardach Finnfeachnach m Tuathal Teachmair the ligitimate whose mother was Baine of Alba.
Manus ODonnell married the 8th earl of Kinsale's daughter Eleanor and hence those decedants were part Norman.

*cinel would simply mean the decendants of Niall Niogiallach.

A sept would be a division of the cinel and a clann would be the entire combined desendants of the children of Niall Nine.
Kinel the English simply meand the kin of Niall
in the Irish it is Cinnial, kin of Niall.

Judi Donnelly
copyright 22 April 2011

sourse: notes from Joyce History of Ireland and geneology table from New Word Histoy of Ireland, Martin Moody and Byrne

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

THE KILRANELAGH SPIRIT

THE KILRANELAGH SPIRIT

two men reparing to their homes just in the twilight, were obliged to pass through this churchyard, or take a considerable circuit.
They had come up the hill, and were beginning to proceed through the cemetary, when they heard just on their left, and apparently proceding from a tomb, the most awful groans and frighful outcries , and a shower of red hot cinders fell on them.

yet after getting to some distanc, they plucked up courage and returned.
They were recieved in a more fearflul fashion this time, and once again feld in terror.

Unacountable as it may appear, they made a third attempt; but this time the noise was more appaling than ever,and a terrible being with a wild outcry, sprang up from behind the monunment and rushed to them.
Down the hill they flew like deer, and after wild flight, took refuge in the first cabin they reached.
This was their version.


We supply another from the mouth of the fiend, then a young stripling and now a plodding citzen of Dublin, and proprier of a farm near this extensive and ancient cemetary.

He was seated on the stone enclosure, when he was in the glooom the two men approacing up hill.
He at once concieved the design of frightening them, and for this purpose enscounded himself behind a tomb with a provision of small stones.
The ghoastly machinery consisted in the groans and howlings he contrived to make, and the shower of pebbles* he discharged on the adventures.
At the third attempt he himself was started by a rustling among the dry weeds and stones behind and his headlong charge was the result of his panic.
Of course he managed not to come up with the fugitiVes.


* THIS AUTHOR WAS CURIOS AS TO THE REASON FOR PEBBLES IN THE CAREFULLY BOXED GRAVE SITES OF IRELAND.
THE CHRISTAIN GRAVE SITES OF THE CATHOLIC ARE MOSTLY COVERED WITH WHITE PEEBLES AND THOSE OF PRODESTANTS WITH A MIX OF COLORED PEBBLES BUT ALL ARE NEATLY BOXED IN.
ONLY THE GRAVES OF THE MILATARISTIC 1700S SHOW HARDLY ANY PEBBLING PARTICULARLY FOR SOLIDIERS BARRACH CEMETARIES.
THESE ARE CHRISTIAN.
NONE OF THE ANCIENT ROUND CIRCLES, DOLMANS, CARNS OR PILLAR STONES SHOW ANY PEBBLING.
THE STORY OF WHY THIS IS DONE IS NOT KNOWN.
PROBABLY TO PERMIT PROTECTION FROM WOLVES AND DOGS AS ARE THE LARGE STONES PLACED OVER THE ANCIENT GRAVE AND DOLMANS


Patrick Kennedy collection


Presented by
Judi Donnelly
copyright 16 April 2011

sourse: Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts,Patrick Kennedy,
mac Millan and Co, London, 1866

Monday, April 18, 2011

THE ENCHANTMENT OF GEAROID IARLA

THE ENCHANTMENt OF GEAROID IARLA

In old times in Ireland there was a great man of the Fitzgeralds.

The name on him was Gerald, but the Irish, that always had a great liking for the family, called him Gearoidh Iarla*.
He had a great castle or rath at Mullaghmast, and whenever the English government were striving to put some wrong on the county , he was alway the man that stood up for it.

Along with being a great leader in a fight, and very skillful at all weapons, he was deep in tne' black art' and could change himself into wahtever shape he pleased.

His lady knew that he had this power, and often asked him to let her into some of his secrets, but he never would gratify her.
She wanted particulary to see him in some strange shape, but he put her off and off on one pretence or another.
But she wouldnt be a woman if she hadnt perseverance; and so at last he let her know that if she took the least fright while he'd be out of his natural form, he would never recover it till many generations of men would be under the mould.

"oh! she wouldnt be a fit wife for Gearoid Iarla if she could be easily frightened'.
'Let him but gratify her in this whim, and he'd see what a hero she was!'

So one beautiful summer evening,as they were sitting in the grand drawing room he turned his face away from her an muttered some words,and while you'd wink he as clever and clean out of sight, and a lovey goldfinch was flying about the room.

The lady, as courageous as she thought herself, was little startled, but she held her own pretty well, especially when he came and perched on her shoulder,and shook his wings, and put his little beak to her lips, and whisteld the delightfullest tune you ever heard.

Well he flew in circles rounD the room, and played hide and go seek with his lady, and flew out into the garden, and flew back again, and lay down in her lap as if he was asleep, and jumped up again.

Well, when the thing had lasted long enough to satisfy both, he took one flight more into the open air; but by my word he was soon on his return.
He flew right into his ladys bosom, and the next moment a fierce hawk was after him.
The wife gave one loud scream, though there was no need, for the wild bird came in like an arrow, and struck against a table with such force that the life was dashed out of him.
She turned her eyes from his quivering body to where she saw the gold finch an instant before, but neither goldfinch or Earl Garrett did she ever lay eyes on again.

Once every seven years the Earl rides round the Curragh of Kildare on a steed, whose silver shoes were half an inch thick the time he disapeared; and when these shoes are worn and as thin as a cats ear, he will be restored to the society of living men, fight a great battle with the English, and reign King of Ireland for two score years.

Himself and his warriors are now sleeping in a long cavern under the Rath of Mullaghamast.

There is a table runing along thorough the middle of the cave.

The Earl is sitting at the end, and his troopers down along in complete armour both sides of the table,and their heads resing on it.

Their horses saddled and bridled,are standing behind their master in thir stalls at each side and when day comes the millers son thats to be born with six fingers on each hand will blow his trumpet, and the horses will stamp and whiny, and the knights awake and mount their steed and go forth to battle.

Some night that happens once in every seven years, while the Earl is riding around the Curragh, the entrance may be seen by any one chancing to pass by.

About a hundered years ago, a horse dealer that was late abroad and a little drunk saw the lighted cavern, and went in.

The lights and the stillness, and the sight of the men in armour cowed him a good deal and he became sober.

His hads began to tremble and he let fall a bridle on the pavement.
The sound of the bit echoed through the long cave,and one of the warriors that was next him lifted his head a little and said in a deep hoarse voice,
'Is it time yet ?'

He had the wit to say,
'Not yet but soon will', and the heavy helmut sunk down on the table.

The horse dealer made the best of his way out,and I never heard of any other one getting the same opportunity.

from the writings and narration of Patrick Kennedy


*Gear is the Irish spelling for German the Gearman;
oid is pronounced 'ead' and is said 'ald' meaning old ;
ead means jelous or envious;
oi is also pronounced ae which is pronounced au like auld;
fitz is a son of;
So Fitz Gearoid would essentially mean
son of the old german, or son of the jelous gearman.

The spelling of Irish lapses into pronuciation spelling in the middle Irish which would be from 1200 -1600 and again takes on the sound phonetic writing of the English from 1600-2000 Ad

This change in script comes with the continental church friars and priests replacing the native Irish as bishops etal; and these writings retained the old pronuciation of the Irish which is the sound written down in the English words .




Presented by

JudiDonnelly
copyright April 16 2011

spourse: Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, Patrick Kennedy,
Macmillan and Co , 1866

THE CROCK IN THe RATH

THE CROCK IN THE RATH


If any of the English readers are ignorant of the social position of tailors in the remote districts of the county, let them hereby learn that Brian Neill, the unlucky hero of this narrative when he arose on Monday morning, betook himself to the farmers house where his services were required, took the measure of his clients, sat on the large kitchen table, kept his goose in the turf fire, mended and made clothes, chatted with the women, and there reamained till his business was finished.
He than repaired to some other farmstead where his presence was desirable, and thus his life glided on.

Brian was employed as mentioned one afternoon on Mrs Rooneys great table.
He had been remarked all the day for an unwonted silence, and now began to acquaint Mrs Rooney with the subject on which his thoughts were employed.

'Be this and be that, maam, its very strange that I should have the same dream for the last three nights.
There it was, in the rath of Knocmor, I saw as plain as I see you now, a big grey stone, and an old thorn tree, and the hole between them, and the crock at the bottom of it.
I declare to you I cant stand it any longer.
Ill take a spade and shovel, and try my fortune and have it off my mind.
You neednt tell anybody where Im gone'.

About three hours afterwards he returned in a very dismantled condition, his hair in moist flakes, his eyes glassy, and his whole appearance betokening one who would drop to peices if some strong power were not keeping him together.

'Oh maam honey!',he faltered out, 'let me lie down somewhere; I think I'll die.'

Mrs Rooney had him put into the bed belonging to the servant boy,and good naturaedly brought him a warm drink of whey in a quarter of an hour or so.

She than sat down by the bed; and when he had refreshed himself, and seemed somewhat restord, she requested to know how he had faired after he had left the house.
This is the account he rather reluctantly gave after some pressing:

'When I got to the rath maam, I wondered to find the stone and the old thorn just as I dreamed they were.
Bedad I took of my coat,and fell to, and dug and shoveled, and shoveled and dug till my poor arms were tired.

I rested myself for a little while, and then fell to again.

Well I think I was down between three and four feet, when I felt somthing hard against the spade.
I cleared away the clay carefully from about it, and what was it but a heavy crock, just like the very one I saw in the dreams.

I lifted it out on the heap of clay I threw up, and was going to get the cover when I felt myself getting as weak as water.
I was trembling indeed, and my heart fluttering from the first touch I gave it with the spade.
well what would you have of it!
I fell down in a stugue and dont know how long I was in it; and when I came to myself the very sight of the crock brought my heart to my mouth.

I done nothing after that but crawled back as well as I could.
I suppose all happened to me because I did not say a prayer, or take any holy water with me to sprinkle a ring around the place.

I think I'll go asleep now';' I cant keep eyes open.'

so he slept soundly,and never woke till next morning,and the first thing he was conscious of was a strong inclination to go to the rath again, and recover the crock, if it still remained there.
He went in all haste, found the spade and shovel, the heap of clay, and the pit but no sign of the crock or it cover.

He came back, over powered with vexation at the silly way in which he had behaved the day before,and begged Mrs Rooney to give him his crock,and promised to give her a good handful of its contents.

Crock! said she 'What are you talking about?'

'Sure I am talking about the crock I dug up in the rath of KnocMor yesterday,and that I told you about after you gave me the drink of whey in the bed'.

'Oh my poor man , you are raving!
I gave you a drink sure enough, but this is the first time your opened your mouth about a crock.'

But sure if you come you can can see the hole and the clay, and here is the spade and shovel that I used.'
And if they are, is that a reason I should have your crock, that I never heard of till this blessed hour?'

There was a great commotion in the neighborhood.

Several people, including Mr and Mrs Rooney, went to the rath,and saw the hole in the clay, but that did not prove that Mrs Rooney got the money.
All that the sharpest neighbors could make out was the absence of the farmer and his wife from their house for about an hour on the evening in question.
It all resulted in poor Brian losing his reason,and coming to vituperate Mrs Rooney about once a week at her own door.

We will say of her that she always gave him something to eat on these occations, and a coat or breaches when his need was sore for good clothing.
By degrees the farm was improved,and more land taken.

Her children were well provided for,and so are such of other grandchildren as are now living.
Ill got money does not in general produce such comfortable results.

told by Patrick Kennedy

presented by
Judi Donnelly
copyright 16 April 2011

sourse: Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, Patrick Kennedy, Mc Millan and Co.,London, undated publication